According to dentistrymyth, Utrecht [Dutch y ː trεxt], is a provincial in the Netherlands, in the southeast of Randstad Holland, Amsterdam am Rhein-channel (2018) 347 480 residents;Seat of the Old Catholic and the Catholic Archbishop of the Netherlands, several central state administrations, courts, the Imperial Coin and the Imperial Archives; University (founded 1636), University of Philosophy (Universiteit voor Humanistiek, founded 1989), University of Applied Sciences, Conservatory, Institute for Space Research, Central Museum Utrecht, Museum of Christian Art (Het Catharijneconvent), Museum of Music Boxes and Barrel Organs, Dutch Railway Museum, Paleobotanical Museum, Theatre. Versatile industry: especially food, pharmaceutical, electrotechnical and electronic industries, mechanical engineering, paper processing (labels), construction and textile companies; two power plants. Utrecht is an important financial and insurance center, trade fair city and the center of the Dutch transport network.
The cathedral in the center of the old town surrounded by old moats, originally a five-aisled Gothic basilica (started in 1254 instead of a Romanesque forerunner), has consisted of the 112 m high freestanding west tower (1321-82) since the nave was destroyed by a hurricane (1674) the choir (not yet completed in 1317) with chapel wreath and transept; Cloister with chapter house (around 1450; today university assembly hall). Originally preserved Romanesque churches are Sint-Pieter (consecrated in 1043, choir and transept remodeled in the 13th century), Sint-Jan (1040; choir 16th century, facade 1681), Sint-Nicolaas (12th century) with a two-tower west facade. Late Gothic are Sint-Jacob (14th – 15th centuries), Buurkerk (14th – 15th centuries, based on the previous building from the 13th century; now houses the National Museum of Music Boxes and Barrel Organs) and the Catharijnekerk (around 1470–1551). Many old secular buildings have been preserved, such as Huis Oudaen (around 1300), Huis Zoudenbalch (1467–68) and that for the later Pope Hadrian VI. Paushuize (papal house) built in 1517, meat hall (1637) and numerous stately houses, especially on the canals. The town hall, made up of three medieval houses, was given a classicist facade in 1824–47. An example of De Stijl architecture is the Schröder House by G. Rietveld (1924), a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 1938–41 W. M. Dudok built the theater in the facilities of the old fortification. With »Hoog Catharijne«, which is connected to the new central station (Centraal Station), one of the largest covered shopping centers in Europe was created; H. Hertzberger created the Vredenburg Music Center (1976–78). Based on the by R. Koolhaas and his architectural office OMA created a master plan (1989) for the densification and restructuring of the university campus “De Uithof”, a “city within the city” was built with remarkable new buildings, such as the new building for the University of Economics and Management (1995, architects Mecanoo), which was used as a The “Educatorium” (1997, by Koolhaas and OMA), the “Minnaertgebouw” (1997, by the Rotterdam architecture firm Neutelings Riedijk), the NMR laboratory (2001, by Ben van Berkel), BasketBar (2003, by NL- Architects) and the university library (2004, by Wiel Arets).
Utrecht grew out of the Roman fort Traiectum ad Rhenum, built around AD 47, and the subsequent civilian settlement. In Frankish times, Bishop Willibrord used their remains to build a mission center for the northern Netherlands. The rapidly flourishing settlement, which quickly turned to trade due to its convenient location, suffered setbacks due to Norman invasions in the 9th century, but quickly recovered. In 1122 Utrecht became a city under episcopal sovereignty. At the beginning of the 14th century, the guilds gained extensive influence over the city government from the bishop. During the Eighty Years’ War the city sided with the rebels. 1579 joined in the Union of Utrecht the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands came together in response to the Union of Arras and renounced Spain in 1581. The Treaty of Utrecht on April 11, 1713 ended the War of the Spanish Succession. During the Napoleonic era, Utrecht was the residence of King Ludwig of Holland from 1806-10.