Spain in the 20th and 21st Centuries Part I

Spain in the 20th and 21st Centuries 1

The time of the restoration (1902–31)

During the independent government of Alfonso XIII. (1902–31) showed the political system created by Cánovas increasingly weak. Conservatives and liberals continued to alternate in government; however, neither party was able to solve the country’s problems. The domestic political problems were exacerbated by the involvement in Morocco, where Spain sought replacements for the lost colonies (1904 delimitation of the spheres of influence in North Africa between Spain and France). The resistance of the Moroccans necessitated a series of campaigns that were extremely unpopular in Spain, a country that is a member of European Union defined by Ehealthfacts. The protest was articulated in Barcelona in 1909 in a general strike that was brutally suppressed (“Semana trágica”, Tragic Week, July 26th – 31st). In 1912 the liberal party leader fell J. Canalejas y Méndez was assassinated.

Spain remained neutral during the First World War. In the domestic political discussion, the liberals and socialists tended more towards the Entente, from which they hoped the defense and further development of a free state constitution; the Conservatives, v. a. in the military, in the upper clergy and among the large landowners, especially from Germany, they expected a strengthening of the traditional social structures. The anti-monarchical forces saw in a victory of the Entente powers a favorable prerequisite for the establishment of a republic, the separatist forces, especially in Catalonia, saw opportunities for greater autonomy. Despite the great economic advantages that trade and industry drew from Spain’s neutral position, the social differences intensified and led through actions that were socially dissatisfied, officers united in “Juntas de Defensa” (June 1917) and the declaration of a general strike by the workers (July 1917) leading to a state crisis. In Catalonia, the social conflict, combined with demands for autonomy, took on forms similar to civil war at times. The reform efforts of 1917 failed, however, because the reform forces among the officers, the bourgeoisie and the working class agreed on the abolition of the pseudo parliamentarism determined by an oligarchy, the idea of ​​social revolution carried by the working class was rejected by the other two social groups. The internal tensions have been accompanied by military setbacks in Africa since the First World War: Under the leadership of Abd el-Krim broke out in Spanish Morocco in 1920, a revolt of the Rifkabylen, which called the Spanish rule there in question.

On September 13, 1923, with the tolerance of the king, a military coup brought M. Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja to power: he replaced the discredited parliamentary system – against the background of corruption – with a personal dictatorship. In terms of foreign policy, together with France, he was able to put down the uprising in Morocco. After replacing the military cabinet with a civilian government in 1925, he sought to modernize the country with an infrastructure improvement program. With the Unión Patriótica he founded a party in 1925 that was supposed to support the government, but which found no support from the people. Intelligence too (M. de Unamuno y Jugo inter alia) remained in opposition. In 1928 riots broke out which led to the closure of the universities in Madrid and Barcelona. In Catalonia, which continued to oppose the centralism of Madrid, the socialists and anarchists gained influence. Since Primo de Rivera was unable to alleviate the social differences and especially left the question of large estates unresolved, the king forced him to resign in 1930. When his successor, General Dámaso Berenguer, had to abdicate on February 14, 1931, the fate of the monarchy was sealed: the indignation was now directed against the king. After the Republicans had won a success in the municipal elections, Alfonso XIII left. on April 14th the country; on the same day the republic was proclaimed in Madrid.

Spanish rulers and presidents

Spanish rulers and presidents
Kingdom of Asturias
Pelayo (Pelagius) 718 / 722-737
Favila 737-739
Alfons I. 739-757
Fruela I. 757-768
Aurelio 768-774
silo 774-783
Mauregato 783-788
Bermudo I. 788-791
Alfonso II, the chaste 791-842
Ramiro I. 842-850
Ordoño I. 850-866
Alfonso III the Great (910 creation of the Kingdom of León from the inheritance of Asturias, the entire territory of which it encompassed from 924) 866-910
Kingdom of León
García 910-914
Ordoño II. 914-924
Fruela II. 924-925
Alfons IV 926-932
Ramiro II. 932-950
Ordoño III. 950-956
Sancho I. 957-966
Ramiro III. 966-985
Bermudo II (anti-king since 982) 985-999
Alfons V. 999-1028
Bermudo III. 1028-1037
Ferdinand I, the Great (also King of Castile since 1035) 1037-1065
Alfonso VI, the Brave (also King of Castile since 1072) 1065-1109
Urraca (also Queen of Castile) 1109-1126
Alfonso VII, the emperor (also King of Castile) 1126-1157
Ferdinand II. 1157-1188
Alfons IX (1230 final union of León with Castile) 1188-1230
Kingdom of Navarre
Sancho I. Garcés 905-925
García I. Sánchez 925-970
Sancho II. Garcés Abarca 970-994
García II. Sánchez 994-1000
Sancho III., D. Ä. or the Great (also ruled Aragon, Castile [since 1029] and parts of León) around 1000-1035
García III. de Nájera 1035-1054
Sancho IV. De Peñalén 1054-1076
Sancho V. Ramírez (from 1063 as Sancho I King of Aragon) 1076-1094
Peter I (also King of Aragon) 1094-1104
Alfonso I, the battle fighter (also King of Aragon) 1104-1134
García IV. Ramírez 1134-1150
Sancho VI. 1150-1194
Sancho VII. 1194-1234
Thibaut I. 1234-1253
Thibaut II. 1253-1270
Heinrich I. 1270-1274
Johanna I. 1274-1305
Ludwig I. 1305 / 07-1316
Johann I, the child 1316
Philip II 1316-1322
Charles I. 1322-1328
Joan II 1328-1349
Charles II 1349-1387
Charles III 1387-1425
Blanka 1425-1441
John II (also King of Aragon since 1458) 1425-1479
Leonore 1479
Francisco Febo 1479-1483
Katharina von Foix (since 1484 together with her husband Johann von Albret; 1512 union of Navarre south of the Pyrenees with Aragon and Castile) 1483-1512
Barcelona county (Catalonia)
Wilfredo I. 878-897
Wilfredo II. 898-911
Suniario 911-947
Borrell II. 947-992
Ramon Borrell I. 992-1018
Berenguer Ramón I. 1018-1035
Ramón Berenguer I. 1035-1076
Ramón Berenguer II. 1076-1082
Berenguer Ramón II. 1082-1097
Ramón Berenguer III, the great 1097-1131
Ramón Berenguer IV. (From 1137 union of Barcelona / Catalonia with Aragon) 1131-1162
Kingdom of Aragon
Ramiro I. 1035-1063
Sancho I. Ramírez (also King of Navarre since 1076) 1063-1094
Peter I. 1094-1104
Alfons I, the battle fighter 1104-1134
Ramiro II, the monk 1134-1137
Petronila 1137-1162
Kingdom of Catalonia-Aragon
Ramón Berenguer IV, the saint 1137-1162
Alfonso II, the chaste 1162-1196
Peter II the Catholic 1196-1213
Jacob I, the Conqueror 1213-1276
Peter III, the great 1276-1285
Alfons III the Generous 1285-1291
Jacob II, the righteous 1291-1327
Alfons IV, the benevolent 1327-1336
Peter IV, the ceremonial 1336-1387
Johann I, the hunter 1387-1396
Martin I. 1396-1410
Ferdinand I (of Antequera) 1412-1416
Alfons V, the magnanimous 1416-1458
Johann II. 1458-1479
Ferdinand II the Catholic (1479 Union of the Crowns of Aragon and Castile) 1479-1516
County or (from 1035) Kingdom of Castile
Ferdinand González 932-970
García (Garcí) Fernández 970-995
Sancho García 995-1017
García Sánchez 1017-1028
Sancho I, the Great (King of Navarre since about 1000) 1029-1035
Ferdinand I, the great 1035-1065
Sancho II. 1065-1072
Alfonso VI, the brave 1072-1109
Urraca 1109-1126
Alfonso VII, the emperor 1126-1157
Sancho III. 1157-1158
Alfonso VIII 1158-1214
Heinrich I. 1214-1217
Berenguela 1217
Ferdinand III the Saint (permanent union with León since 1230) 1217-1252
Alfonso X, the Wise 1252-1284
Sancho IV. 1284-1295
Ferdinand IV. 1295-1312
Alfonso XI 1312-1350
Peter I, the cruel 1350-1369
Henry II (of Trastámara) 1369-1379
Johann I. 1379-1390
Henry III. 1390-1406
Johann II. 1406-1454
Henry IV 1454-1474
Isabella I, the Catholic 1474-1504
Spain since the union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon
the “Catholic Kings” Isabella I of Castile († 1504) and Ferdinand II of Aragon († 1516); in the castile. Reichen: 1504-06 / 16 Johanna the Mad († 1555) and (1504/06) her husband Philip I, the Beautiful († 1506); 1506–16 reign of Ferdinand II. 1479-1504 / 16
Charles I (Habsburg) 1516-1556
Philip II 1556-1598
Philip III 1598-1621
Philip IV 1621-1665
Charles II 1665-1700
Philip V of Anjou (Bourbon) 1700-1724
Ludwig 1724
Philip V of Anjou 1724-1746
Ferdinand VI. 1746-1759
Charles III 1759-1788
Charles IV 1788-1808
Ferdinand VII. March – May 1808
Joseph (Bonaparte) 1808-1813
Ferdinand VII (Bourbon) 1814-1833
Isabella II 1833-1868 / 70
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre (Regent) 1869-1870
Amadeus, Duke of Aosta (Savoy) 1870-1873
First Republic (Presidents)
Estanislao Figueras February-June 1873
Francisco Pi Margall June – July 1873
Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso July – September 1873
Emilio Castelar y Ripoll September 1873 – January 1874
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre January – December 1874
restoration
Alfonso XII (Bourbon) 1874-1885
Maria Christina of Austria (regent until 1902) 1885-1886 / 1902
Alfonso XIII 1886 / 1902-1931
Second Republic (Presidents)
Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres 1931-1936
Manuel Azaña y Díaz 1936-1939
Franco regime
Francisco Franco Bahamonde 1939-1975
kingdom
Juan Carlos I (Bourbon) 1975-2014
Felipe VI. (Bourbon) since 2014

Spain in the 20th and 21st Centuries 1