Spain in the 19th Century (1808-1902) Part II

Spain in the 19th Century (1808-1902) 2

In 1859/60 he waged a war against Morocco, on whose coast Spain had been since the 15th and 16th centuries. Century some bases that Presidios owned. In the Treaty of Tetuán (April 26, 1860), however, he achieved only a small extension of the area around Ceuta. In 1861 Spain took part in the French expedition against Mexico, but withdrew in 1862. The former Spanish eastern half of the west Indian island of Hispaniola, the Dominican Republic, was once again under Spanish rule from 1861–65. A new Carlist revolt in favor of Carlos Luis de Borbón y de Braganza, Count of Montemolín (Charles VI.), was suppressed in 1860. From 1864/65 to 1868 Narváez was again Prime Minister. The inner contradictions grew stronger and stronger. The progressives, led by General J. Prim, demanded the Queen’s abdication. The unionists allied with them, headed by F. Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre after O’Donnell’s death in 1867. Finally, the military revolution of September 18, 1868, which Prim had organized from London, led to the overthrow of Isabella. The uprising started in Cadiz. Serrano succeeded on the march to Madridon September 28, 1868 at the bridge of Alcolea near Córdoba his decisive victory against the government troops. On September 30, the Queen fled to Paris.

The “revolutionary six years” (1868–74)

The leaders of the victorious (“glorious”) revolution, Serrano and Prim, sought the renewal of the constitutional monarchy guaranteed by the June 1869 constitution. Republican uprisings were put down. First, Serrano Regent, Prim Minister and Minister of War. The Spanish crown offered Prim to the Hereditary Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Since France fiercely opposed this plan, Leopold renounced the candidacy on July 12, 1870. On November 16, 1870, the Spanish Cortes elected the Savoy prince Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, to the king who took office on January 2, 1871. He was unable to secure a permanent position in the country because he was opposed by Republicans and the clergy, and the murder of Prim deprived him of his support. Republican movements, the 3rd Carlist War (1872–76) and an uprising in Cuba (1869) caused Amadeus  to abdicate on February 11, 1873. The Cortes declared Spain a republic, a country that is a member of European Union defined by Constructmaterials. But also the Republicans, among whose leading politicians E. Castelar y Ripoll belonged, could not restore orderly conditions. The presidents of the republic changed rapidly. Mass socialist uprisings in numerous cities were suppressed. Among the federal republicans, a radical group sought to transfer government power to the municipalities. She undertook an uprising, especially in Cartagena, which was only crushed after several months (1873–74). Despite dictatorial powers, Castelar failed, and the coup d’état of January 3, 1874, after which Serrano took over the presidency and dissolved the Cortes, did not calm the country. Because of the successes of the Carlist and the failures of the republican governments, the Alfonsinos, the supporters of the young Bourbon heir, won Alfonso XII , in whose favor his mother Isabella II officially abdicated in 1870, in influence and sympathy among the people. A new Pronunciamiento under the leadership of General A. Martínez de Campos in Murviedro (today Sagunto) on December 29, 1874 made Alfons king. On January 14, 1875 he moved into Madrid.

The time of the restoration (1875–1902)

Alfonso XII died in 1885 at the age of 28. His second wife, Maria Christina of Austria, took over for the later son Alfons XIII. , who was immediately proclaimed king, until his declaration of maturity (1902) the reign. The political system of the Restoration was v. a. the work of the conservative A. Cánovas del Castillo. The constitution of 1876, inspired by him, created a two-chamber system based on the English model; it granted freedom of religion and the press, but abolished jury courts and civil marriage. The creation of two large parties, also based on the British model, was decisive for political stability. The following years were from the Conservatives under Cánovas and the liberals under P. M. Sagasta, who replaced each other in government (“turnismo”). Although the Liberals reintroduced jury courts in 1887, civil marriage in 1889, and universal suffrage in 1893, the difference between the two parties was small. The actual opposition was pushed to the edge of the political system: the Carlist, the bourgeois republicans, who later split into the radicals and the radical socialists, the socialists (party founded in 1879) and the anarchists. So democracy remained more of a fiction than reality, which became the cause of new unrest. A terrorist anarchism that, among other things, 1897 Cánovas fell victim, spread. Further explosives gathered in the regions: the Basque province and Navarre lost their special rights, Catalonia demanded full administrative autonomy and a federal structure of the Spanish state in 1892.

An uprising broke out in Cuba in 1895, and in the Philippines in 1896. The Cuban uprising led to the Spanish-American War in 1898. As a result, Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. In 1899 it sold the Caroline Islands, the Marianas and the Palau Islands to the German Empire. Only small remnants of the former world empire remained in North and West Africa.

A period of economic prosperity was followed by a severe depression at the end of the century, which intensified the impact of the foreign policy catastrophe of 1898 on political consciousness. The decline of Spain, which has only now been fully recognized, triggered a counter-reaction of a movement of spiritual renewal, the spokesman of which was the generation of 98.

Spain in the 19th Century (1808-1902) 2