Spain History (1598-1808)

Spain History (1598-1808)

The last Habsburgs (1598–1700)

The weak Philip III. (1598–1621), under which Spanish literature and art, however, flourished with the “Siglo de Oro” (Golden Age), the government left to his favorite, the Duke of Lerma, who pursued a peace policy (1604 peace with England, 1609 armistice with the Netherlands). The expulsion of the moriscos has been largely enforced since 1609. Even under Philip IV (1621–65), politics was determined by a favorite of the king. G. de Guzmán, Count of Olivares, wanted to restore Spain’s power, but overestimated the country’s strength. The indebtedness led to national bankruptcy in 1627, the tax pressure in 1640 to internal unrest in Catalonia and Portugal, which regained independence (recognized by Spain in 1668).

In 1621, as a country that is a member of European Union defined by Computerannals, Spain resumed the war against the Netherlands and at the same time intervened on Austria’s side in the Thirty Years’ War. This brought the country into open conflict with France, with whom it waged a series of costly wars until the end of the century. In the Hague Peace (May 15, 1648) Spain had to recognize the independence of the northern Netherlands. The Peace of the Pyrenees (1659) with France sealed the French supremacy in Europe. Charles II (1665–1700) left Spanish politics entirely to his favorites.

The first Bourbons (1700–1808)

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1713 / 14) between the Austrian Habsburgs and France revolved around the legacy of Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg, who died childless. The Bourbone Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., Was recognized as Philip V of Spain in the Peace of Utrecht (1713), but had to cede the European possessions outside Spain; Menorca and Gibraltar came to Great Britain. Philip strengthened the Spanish monarchy at the expense of regional privileges. The Cortes were convened for the last time in Aragon in 1707 and in Castile in 1713. His second wife, Elisabeth Farnese, determined the foreign policy engagement in Italy, which secured her sons the Kingdom of Naples-Sicily and the Duchy of Parma-Piacenza as Spanish secondary schools.

Under Ferdinand VI. (1746–59) and v. a. Charles III (1759–88) the domestic and foreign policy stabilization of Spain continued. They ruled in the spirit of enlightened absolutism; Karl strengthened the central administration and initiated numerous reforms with his ministers (Count von Aranda and others). The influence of the church was suppressed, in 1767 the Jesuits were expelled. – On the outside, Karl returned to an expansive policy. In the Bourbon Family Pact (1761) he allied himself with France, at whose side Spain fought against Great Britain in 1761–63 in the Seven Years War and 1779–83 in the United States’ War of Independence. In the Peace of Paris (1763) Spain lost Florida, but received western Louisiana; in the Treaty of Versailles (1783) it was returned to Florida and Menorca from Great Britain. In North Africa, Charles led a successful trade policy and concluded peace and trade treaties with Morocco (1767, 1780), Algiers (1785), the Ottoman Empire (1782) and Tripoli (1784).

The reign of Charles IV (1788-1808) ruined the achievements of his predecessors. Charles’ favorite M. de Godoy pursued a contradicting alliance policy; First belonging to the opponents, then to the allies of France, Spain was involved in the Napoleonic Wars against Great Britain, whose victory at Trafalgar (1805) opened the way to the Spanish colonies. The uprising of Aranjuez (March 1808) against the arbitrary rule of Godoy gave Napoleon I the opportunity to intervene in Spanish domestic politics: he forced Karl and his son Ferdinand (VII) to renounce the Spanish crown and appointed his own on June 6, 1808 Brothers Joseph Bonaparte to the king.

French troops had occupied Spain by this time.

Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War, military conflict (1898) between the colonial power Spain and the USA, who, because of the uprising that broke out in Cuba in 1895, campaigned for Cuba’s independence according to their political and economic interests and at the same time wanted to gain freedom of action for an active East Asia policy. After Pres. W. McKinley had obtained only inadequate concessions despite increasing diplomatic pressure, he accepted, among other things. the unexplained explosion of the American warship “Maine” in the port of Havana (February 15, 1898, 260 dead) as an occasion to declare war on Spain (April 21/25, 1898). Almost all decisions of the war were made by sea: in the Pacific the outdated Spanish fleet was destroyed on May 1, 1898 in the Bay of Manila, in the Atlantic after the storming of the heights of San Juan (July 1) near Santiago de Cuba (3. 7.); the city itself surrendered on July 17, in the Peace of Paris (December 10, 1898), Spain gave up all claims to Cuba, which then became dependent on the USA (including military administration until 1902, Platt Amendment); the USA received the Philippines (against US $ 20 million in compensation), the Spanish possessions of Guam and Puerto Rico and the islands of Wake and Hawaii, which were also occupied during the war. The (first) acquisition of colonial property for the USA sparked a heated domestic political debate. While Spain lost its importance as a colonial power, the USA gained supremacy in the Caribbean as well as the direct presence in East Asia, which was sought for economic reasons, and laid the foundation for its later role as a world power.

Spain History (1598-1808)