The 19th century and subsequent developments
In the first half of the 19th century. the architecture continued in the neoclassical style, while in the second a nationalistic return to old traditions achieved some success. It was above all painting that had an original development. The first thirty years was dominated by the personality of F. Goya, and by his imitators (L. Alonso y Nieto). In the post-romantic movement E. Rosales, who dealt with historical subjects and portraits, and M. Fortuny stood out. Closes the Spanish painting of the 19th century. the figure of J. Sorolla.
● At the turn of the century, a movement emerged in Catalonia that participated in an original way in international requests for a new art, and its major exponents in architecture are L. Domenech i Montaner and A. Gaudí i Cornet (➔ modernism). The painting of the first decades of the twentieth century remains faithful to tradition by referring to Goya and the great masters of the Spanish seventeenth century (I. Zuluaga, J. Gutiérrez Solana, the Zubiaurre brothers), but an extraordinary contribution to the European avant-garde is given by artists such as P. Picasso, J. Gris, J. Gonzales, J. Miró, Spain Dalí. The GATCPAC (➔ # 10132;) is among the most advanced peaks of the architectural and artistic avant-garde in Spain before the civil war.
● According to top-mba-universities, after a period of stagnation, following the establishment of the Franco regime, in 1948 there was a new rise of extremely lively initiatives with a group of abstract painters in Zaragoza (F. Aguayo), with the foundation in Barcelona by Dau al Set, which combines surrealist and abstract tendencies (A. Tapies, JJ Tharrats, M. Cuixart, J. Ponç) and with the so-called Altamira school which groups artists such as P. Palazuelo, A Ferrant, M. Millaresand organizes congresses (1949 and 1950) and a first exhibition of abstract art (1953) in Santander. Also in 1953 an important exhibition of «Fantastic Art» was held in Madrid; the Hispanic Institute founded in Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife) the Westerdhal Museum of Abstract Art, and the Salon de Majo is established in Barcelona and the Taüll group is born (1955) with Tapies, Tharrats, Cuixart, J. Guinovart. Of great interest in Valencia is the activity of the Parpalló group (1956) which, with MJ Perez, F. Perez Pizarro, J. Gil, J. Genoves, Spain Montesa, Spain Soria, edited the publication Arte vivo and is inspired by integration between the arts; the Forma group of Barcellona pursues similar aims (M. Benet, J. Oteiza). Equipo 57 was born in Cordova in 1957 with J. Duarte, J. Serrano, J. Cuenca, with a constructivist approach, while in Madrid the El Paso group brings together M. Millares, A. Saura, L. Feito, R. Canogar, M. Chirino.
● Materic and gestural painting is represented by the Silex group (1964) from Barcelona. J. Genovés and the Crónica de la realidad group with M. Valdés and R. Solbes (Equipo Crónica) react to purely formal research, which for a greater political and social commitment and a more interesting formal invention separates itself from the various groups of Estampa Popular. The lively personality of E. Arroyo is linked to the setting of Crónica de la Realidad. Exponents of the optical-kinetic research are E. Sempere and F. Sobrino.
● The experiences of E. Chillida, M. Berrocal are interesting for sculpture, JM Subirachs, J. Haro, A. Gabino, A. Alfaro, X. Corberó, F. Hernández and L. Lugan (plastic-electronic works). To the various connotations of conceptual art (from the ‘ceremonial’ installations by A. Miralda, to the video installations of A. Muntadas) in contrast, since the 1980s, also in Spain a return to figuration (L. de la Cámara, L. Arraz Bravo, M. Barceló, also dedicated to ceramics since 1995, G. Pérez Villalta).
● In the last years of the 20th century. official cultural policy has assumed a fundamental role in the artistic life of the country, with the creation of centers and museums dedicated to contemporary art. Among the already established artists: F. García Sevilla, who from a conceptual research comes to an abstract painting; JM Broto, abstract artist; Spain Sevilla, which elaborates allusive paintings and installations. The painters J. Maria assert themselvesSicily, J. Uslé, Perejaume, who works with painting and photography; the group of Sevillian painters (R. Cardenas, G. Paneque, F. Guzmán).
● In sculpture, notable J. Muñoz, author of sculptures and installations; M. Navarro ; Spain Solano; C. Iglesias. Still to be remembered are J. Plensa, M. Paz, B. Bergado, M. Arenzana, R. Catania, in the field of sculpture and installation; the assemblages by A. Abad. E. Ferrer and N. Canal cultivate an art of the body; C. War and D. Gutiérrez, between painting and installation; T. Tour with researches on the object. Video and multimedia elaborations create M. Saiz, AL Aláez, Spain Rabanal; C. Madoz, T. Caballos, D. Canogar work on photography.
● In the architectural field, the achievements of JA Coderch, great inspirer of the Barcelona school, are important, from which the PER studio (L. Clotét, O. Tusquets, P. Bonet, C. Cirici) and R. Bofill with original proposals the Taller de Arquitectura. Related to the Madrid school are FJ Saenz de Oiza, JA Corrales Gutierrez, R. Moneo. In 1992 the Barcelona Olympics and the universal exhibition in Seville were the occasion for important interventions by Spanish architects (Moneo, Bohigas studio, Martorell and Mackay, R. Bofill, Spain Calatrava) and foreign architects (N. Foster, A Isozaki, V. Gregotti, G. Aulenti).
● Following these events, Spanish architecture inaugurated a season of architectural renewal that affected the entire Iberian Peninsula. The Spain has thus demonstrated that it possesses a high-level architecture and its own identity, in contrast with the stylistic homologation process found in the international field. Well-known personalities such as R. Moneo, J. Navarro Baldeweg, O. Bohigas (MBM studio), G. Vázquez Consuegra, O. Tusquets have consolidated their position, even outside the Iberian borders ; the designers who established themselves in the last twenty years of the 20th century. they mostly worked in continuity with their predecessors, often producing works of considerable interest. Among them: E. Miralles Moya ; JL Mateo; M. de las Casas; Rei Alfonso Enriques; J. Bach & G. Mora; A. Field; A. Cruz & A. Ortiz ; C. Ferrater. Finally, the Spanish architectural school has given a sign of extreme vitality with a further generation of designers capable of regenerating consolidated languages: particularly noteworthy are L. Moreno Mansilla & E. Tuñon; J. Llinàs; F. Soriano & D. Palacios; A. Payà; P. Mangado; RCR arquitectos study, made up of R. Aranda, C. Pigem and R. Vilalta; BAAS study by J. Badia; AMP arquitectos studio, made up of F. Artengo, FM Menis and JM Rodriguez-Pastrana.