Since the distant time of its foundation, according to dentistrymyth, San Marino can boast a tradition of freedom and independence defended with wisdom and determination, but its historical and cultural identity remains inextricably linked to the events that have written the history of Italy (from municipal struggles to those of the Risorgimento, from fascism to bombing during the German retreat). In the course of its evolution, the small republic has been able to reconcile adherence to modern times with respect for secular orders and traditions. A first example is provided by the historical re-evaluation of the use of the crossbow, the most ancient defense weapon of the republic, a tradition that lives on thanks to the establishment of a federation of crossbowmen who, together with a body of flag-wavers, ancient musicians and figures, he often performs in historical costume during official events, giving life to spectacular shooting competitions. Among the events that mark the calendar of San Marino, we note the feast of the patron saint and the foundation of the Republic (3 September), the ceremony of inauguration and the assumption of the six-monthly mandate by the two captains regent who will govern the republic (1 April and October 1) and the anniversary of the liberation of the republic from the Alberonian occupation (February 5), the day on which the feast of Sant’Agata is also celebrated. Every year, for a week (usually the last of August), the “Medieval Days” are celebrated, which include historical processions, parades in period costume, bow and crossbow competitions, Malatesta. Among the cultural symbols of San Marino we should mention the stamps which, born in 1877 as a tax on the postal service, have become precious collectibles, as well as vehicles of the country’s history and traditions. San Marino has numerous museums and libraries located inside historic buildings, sites of significant events in the San Marino past. The State Library, housed in Palazzo Valloni, in the historic center of the capital, in addition to Italian and foreign volumes and periodicals, possesses handwritten works including important letters and correspondence. These manuscripts are collected in large local historical-documentary, literary and ecclesiastical collections. The Pergami-Belluzzi palace is instead the seat of the government museum, inaugurated in 1899 thanks to numerous donations from all over the world. Housed in the second tower, called the Cesta, is the Museum of Ancient Weapons, which preserves white and firearms of various origins, while the Postal, Philatelic and Numismatic Museum, located in Borgo Maggiore, exhibits a rich collection of stamps and coins of the Republic.
§ A place with a strong tourist attraction, in San Marino international cuisine prevails, able to satisfy everyone’s requests, but in some places it is also possible to taste the typical dishes of the Romagna tradition. Of importance is the wine production which includes both white wines (Biancale and Ribolla) and red wines (Brugneto di San Marino) and sparkling wines (Moscato): all these wines are sold and protected by the Consortium of typical wines of San Marino.
Formerly surrounded by three concentric walls (12th-16th centuries), today largely demolished, the city of San Marino has tried to preserve its medieval appearance by resorting to renovations or, at times, to complete reconstructions. On the summit of Mount Titano stand the three fortresses: the Rocca, or Guaita, dating back to the century. XI; la Cesta (13th century), and Montale (13th century). The oldest monument is the church of San Francesco, founded in the century. XIV and remodeled in the sec. XVII-XVIII. Palazzo Valloni, seat of the public library and the state archives, and the door of the cliff date back to the fifteenth century. To the sec. Both the neoclassical basilica of San Marino (designed by the Bolognese architect A. Serra), in neoclassical style, and the neo-Gothic Government building (rebuilt between 1884-94 on a project by the Roman architect F. Azzurri), seat of the main institutional and administrative bodies of the state. Housed in the Bergami-Pelluzzi palace, the State Museum possesses archaeological finds, numismatic collections and an art gallery with ceramics and paintings by Tiziano, Guercino, Spagnoletto and Ghirlandaio. Of artistic and cultural interest, in the other small towns scattered throughout the territory, are also the church and convent of Valdragone, the Malatesta fortress of Serravalle and the modern church of Borgo Maggiore, designed by the Florentine architect G. Michelucci.