Portugal Arts and Architecture from the 19th Century to Today

Portugal Arts

From the 19th century. in the first half of the 20th

According to Top-medical-schools, Neoclassicism manifested itself with the eclectic revival of the styles of the past; in Lisbon, after having trained in Italy, Vieira Portuense and DA de Sequeira (decoration of the Royal Palace of Ajuda) established themselves. In the nineteenth century architecture still presented features inspired by the recovery of the stylistic language that had established itself in previous centuries: the Dona Maria National Theater in Lisbon (F. Lodi, 1842-46) is noteworthy; the Town Hall (D. Parente da Silva, 1866); the interventions in Neo-Manueline at the Jerónimos monastery in Belém (G. Cinatti and A. Rambois, 1878) and the Rossio station (JL Monteiro, 1887). In Sintra, the Palácio de Pena (von Eschwege, 1839). In Porto: Palazzo della Borsa (Costa Lima, in Palladian style, 1842); Palácio de Cristal (D. Tillen Jones, for the first industrial exhibition, 1865). ● Among the sculptors were active S. d’Almeida, A. da Costa Mota and Soares dos Reis (famous portrait painter). In painting, A. Carvalho da Silva Porto and H. Pousão established themselves as successful landscape painters, while the work of JVB Malhoa was linked to popular themes; CB Pinheiro, decorator and portraitist, also had great notoriety. ● The transition between the 19th and 20th centuries. it was also marked by significant urban interventions (Avenida da Libertade, 1879, Lisbon; Avenida dos Aliados, 1915, Porto, designed by M. da Silva). Among the architects we remember M. Ventura Terra, who was inspired by French models (transformation of the convent of S. Bento into the Parliament building, 1903, Lisbon) and R. Lino, an expression of national tradition (cinema Carvalho da Silva Porto and H. Pousão while the work of JVB Malhoa was linked to popular themes; CB Pinheiro, decorator and portraitist, also had great notoriety. ● The transition between the 19th and 20th centuries. it was also marked by significant urban interventions (Avenida da Libertade, 1879, Lisbon; Avenida dos Aliados, 1915, Porto, designed by M. da Silva). Among the architects we remember M. Ventura Terra, who was inspired by French models (transformation of the convent of S. Bento into the Parliament building, 1903, Lisbon) and R. Lino, an expression of national tradition (cinema Carvalho da Silva Porto and H. Pousão while the work of JVB Malhoa was linked to popular themes; CB Pinheiro, decorator and portraitist, also had great notoriety. ● The transition between the 19th and 20th centuries. it was also marked by significant urban interventions (Avenida da Libertade, 1879, Lisbon; Avenida dos Aliados, 1915, Porto, designed by M. da Silva). Among the architects we remember M. Ventura Terra, who was inspired by French models (transformation of the convent of S. Bento into the Parliament building, 1903, Lisbon) and R. Lino, an expression of national tradition (cinema Avenida dos Aliados, 1915, Porto, designed by M. da Silva). Among the architects we remember M. Ventura Terra, who was inspired by French models (transformation of the convent of S. Bento into the Parliament building, 1903, Lisbon) and R. Lino, an expression of national tradition (cinema Avenida dos Aliados, 1915, Porto, designed by M. da Silva). Among the architects we remember M. Ventura Terra, who was inspired by French models (transformation of the convent of S. Bento into the Parliament building, 1903, Lisbon) and R. Lino, an expression of national tradition (cinema Tivoli, 1918, Lisbon). Of the generation between 1920 and 1930, oriented towards modernism, are remembered in Lisbon: C. da Silva (Capitol cinema, 1926-31), Portugal Monteiro (Higher Technical Institute, 1927), C. Ramos (Institute of Oncology, 1927-33), C. Branco (Cinema Eden, 1930-33), J. Segurado (Palazzo della Moeda, 1934-36), Portugal Pardal Monteiro (church of Nossa Senhora de Fátima, 1934-38). Among the sculptors who opposed academicism: F. Franco, J. da Silva, A. de Sousa, D. de Macedo and C. Maia. Some painters (AF Sousa Cardoso, T. Viana and G. Santa-Rita), after a stay in Paris (1905-10), influenced by Cubism, created the conditions for a renewal; in Lisbon J. Sobral de Almada Negreiros and, among others, the poet F. Pessoa gave life to the modernist movement with the magazine Orpheu. The 1920-40s showed a tendency towards naturalism (E. Viana, D. Gomes, A. Manta, C. Botelho, B. Marques); between 1935 and 1940 were active M. Eloy, A. Pedro and A. Dacosta. After World War II, the De Groër plan, favored by the policy of the Estado novo,favoredclassical and monumental forms.

From the second half of the 20th to the 21st century

After a phase characterized above all by intensive architecture in the urban suburbs, Lisbon experienced a cultural renewal with the creation of the C. Gulbenkian Foundation (A. Pessoa, Portugal Cid, R. Atugia, 1962-69); also noteworthy is the construction of the church of the Sagrado Coração de Jesus (T. Pereira, N. Portas, V. Lobo and V. Figueiredos, 1962-75) and, among the urban interventions, the suspension bridge over the Tagus river (1962-66) and the recovery of the Chiado district (1994 project, A. Siza Vieira); the ‘Do Oriente’ Station (S. Calatrava, 1998). A school of architects was successfully formed in Porto, influenced by international currents: A. Siza Vieira (Library of the University of Aveiro, 1991; Pavilion of the Portugal for the 1998 Expo etc.), J. Gigante, E. Souto de Moura, V. Moutinho and A. Soutinho (transformation of the Convent of S. Gonçalo de Amarante into an art museum, 1973, but built in 1980-83). The artists of the post-war generation, initially committed against the Salazar regime, then gave life to various movements: neorealist (J. Pomar), surrealist (M. Vespeira, F. Azevedo, F. Lemos); later they aligned themselves with European trends (F. Lanhas, N. Afonso, J. Rodrigo), to reach the lyrical abstractionism of the 1950s (J. Vieira, M. Baptista, A. Bual, A. Charrua). Of particular international importance was the pictorial activity of ME Vieira da Silva, established in Paris as early as 1929. In the 1960s artists of various tendencies emerged, from surrealism to abstractionism to neofigurativism (J. Rodrigo, F. Azevedo, M. Vespeira), pop art (P. Rego) and optical art (A. Rosa, E. Nery); in Porto the group of Quatro Vintes (J. Rodrigues, J. Pinheiro, A. de Sousa and A. Alves) was relevant. In 1974 the large panel of the Carnation Revolution, performed by 48 artists, constituted a symbolic intervention of comparison between the different trends. In 1977 the first non-figurative monument dedicated to H. Delgado, by J. Aurelio, was inaugurated in Cela Velha. ● It is above all since the mid-1980s, however, that contemporary art in Portugal emerges internationally with new figures of artists. In the context of sculpture and installation, among the most interesting figures are R. Sanches, Portugal Cabrita Reis, JP Croft and R. Chafes. Among the painters, Portugal Rego, who has developed a personal style with large-format works, even in cycles. Ironic and imaginary elements appear in the figurative paintings of C. Pinheiro and R. Bertholo; E. Batarda works between geometry and figuration. From the last years of the 20th century. the painters G. Morais, J. Sarmento, Portugal Calapez, I. David, Portugal Casqueiro. J. Molder and L. Campos are active in the field of photography; in the field of installations A. Ferreira; in the video installations J. Penalva and N. Sendas. The activity in Lisbon of the Caixa Geral dos Depósitos, of the Cultural Center of Belém (headquarters designed by V. Gregotti, 1993), of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation; in Porto of the Contemporary Art Center and the Serralves Foundation (A. Siza Vieira, 1999).

Portugal Arts