Nicaragua State Overview

Nicaragua State Overview

According to Searchforpublicschools, Nicaragua is an independent state located in Central America. The country lies between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It is one of the nations with the greatest biodiversity in the area, being considered a natural paradise with beautiful beaches, mountainous areas rich in natural species as well as several hydrographic accidents. After several years of convulsive social and political situation, Nicaragua stands today as a developing nation and in constant economic progress. Since January 10, 2007, the nation is led by Sandinista Daniel Ortega, who has been president three times.


After the overthrow of the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza – supported by the United States – and the triumph of the Sandinista Revolution in 1979, the National Reconstruction Government was constituted, which established a new constitution.

After the November 1984 elections, a constitution that replaces the previous one is signed, and takes effect as of 1987, and was amended in 1995.
Executive power is exercised by a president who is elected every five years. The president is the representative of the state and is assisted by a vice president.

Type of state and government: presidential.

Main leaders: Daniel Ortega (President).

Executive system: it is made up of the president (head of State and Government), the vice president – both elected by popular vote for a period of five years – and the Cabinet (or Council of Ministers) appointed by the president.

Legislative system: it is represented by the National Assembly (unicameral) made up of 93 members elected by proportional representation for a term of five years.

Judicial system: it is made up of the Supreme Court with 16 judges elected by the National Assembly for a term of seven years.


Currency: córdoba oro (co)

GDP per capita: $ 4,010

Main export products: food (coffee, cotton, banana, sugar, beef, sesame) 88%; agricultural raw materials 3%; fuel 1%; gold and metals 1%; manufacturing 8% (1998) (WB-2000)

Main import products: food 18%; agricultural raw materials 1%; fuels 12%; gold and metals 1%; manufacturing 69% (1998) (WB- 2000)

Labor force: 2.322 million (2008)

Electric energy production: 3,286 billion kWh (2007)

Electric energy consumption: 2,569 billion kWh (2007)

Electricity imports: 63.95 million kWh (2007)

Oil production: 0 barrels per day (2008 est.)

Oil consumption: 29,000 barrels per day (2008)

Natural gas production: 0 million cubic meters (2008 est.)

Natural gas consumption: 0 million cubic meters (2008 est.)


Due to the Spanish colonization the language and religion of Nicaragua very peculiar and its diverse religion


The official language is Spanish and it is spoken by more than 90% of the population. Miskito, English (spoken by some indigenous people on the Caribbean coast), Suno, is also spoken.


The most widespread religion is the Catholic religion (89.7%, 4.2 million people), although there is a minority of Protestants. There are also Baptists, Pentecostes and Moravians that predominate on the Caribbean coast (10.3%). León and its churches is one of the fundamental cities that represent a long-standing religious tradition within the country.

Main cities

The capital is Managua. Other important cities are León and Granada.

National day and reason

Of September 15 of 1821 (Day of Independence of Central America)

Also: 14 of September of 1856 (Battle of San Jacinto)


Population: 5,891,199 (2008)

Population 2015: 5.9 million inhab. (its T.)

Infant mortality: 25.02 deaths per 1,000 live births

Life expectancy: 71.5 years

People with HIV / AIDS: 7,700 (2007 est.)

Literate people: 67.5%

69% of the Nicaraguan population is mestizo, a mixture of Indian and Spanish descendants. 17% are white, 9% black and 5% of Indian descent.


Since the 1980s, education in Nicaragua has been free and compulsory as a result of the Sandinista Revolution, however, many children do not continue secondary education because they do not have the necessary facilities and conditions. There is an Autonomous University in León, and it also has the Central University and the Technological University in Managua. Under the government of Daniel Ortega, literacy was applied with the Cuban program I can do it. The MINED authorities, together with the Cuban ambassador to Nicaragua, Eduardo Martínez, announced at a press conference that the “I Yes I Can Follow” literacy monitoring program will begin , thanks to the support of the Cuban people and government.


As in other Latin American countries, Nicaraguan culture has a mixture of influences from Spanish with the ancestral settlers of the region.
There are traditions of commemorative celebrations that are characterized by color and popular participation; many of these festivals have a religious connotation.
The marimba is extremely popular, as are many musical instruments inherited from older Aboriginal traditions, such as the shawm and the maraca, which are very common in rural areas.
Colonial dances have also survived and there are very good examples of architecture. Nicaragua is home to great poets like Rubén Darío and Ernesto Cardenal.


The Nicaraguan health system is still insufficient to cover all the country’s needs, especially in rural areas.
With the support of the ALBA countries, mainly Cuba and Venezuela, the current government of President Daniel Ortega has promoted important programs to benefit the health of the public sectors.

Nicaragua State Overview