Netherlands Modern Arts

Netherlands Modern Arts

Architecture

Dutch architecture in the first half of the 19th century was determined by academic classicism, followed by historicism (P. Cuypers , Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, 1876–85).

With sober cubic buildings (Stock Exchange in Amsterdam, 1897–1903; Gemeentemuseum in The Hague, 1927–35) HP Berlage set the trend for modern architecture in the Netherlands.

The expressionist “Amsterdam School” endeavored to create a sculptural structure (M. de Klerk , Scheepvaarthuis office building, 1911–16 [together with others] and “Het Schip” residence, 1917–21; both in Amsterdam). The group ” De Stijl ” founded in 1917 (including T. van Doesburg , G. Rietveld , J. Oud ) renewed the aesthetics of exterior and interior design in constructivist forms. Fabriek Van Nelle (1926–30) in Rotterdam, designed by JA Brinkman , LC van der Vlugt and M. Stam , is one of the most important industrial buildings of this time. According to plans by WM Dudok , this also had an exemplary character built town hall in Hilversum (1928–31). The leading Dutch architects after 1945 were JH van den Broek and JB Bakema (Lijnbaan shopping center in Rotterdam, 1949–53), AE van Eyck (orphanage in Amsterdam, 1955–61), H. Hertzberger (Centraal Beheer in Apeldoorn, 1968 –72), R. Koolhaas (Dutch Dance Theater in The Hague, 1984–88; Dutch Embassy in Berlin, 1999–2003) and Jo Coenen (* 1949; Architecture Institute in Rotterdam [NAI], 1989–93). Architecturally and also in terms of urban development, residential construction is significant (e.g. development of the former port area in Amsterdam, including »The Whale«, 2000, by Erick van Egeraat [* 1956]) and Frits van Dongen [* 1946]; »Silodam«, 2002, from the MVRDV office). An experimental pluralism of styles manifests itself in the Kattenbroek development area in Amersfoort (1990–95) designed by Ashok Bhalotra (* 1943). The new art museum in Groningen was built in 1992–94 as a joint effort by internationally leading architects and designers as a deconstructivist building. Buildings such as the annex to the Anne Frank Museum in Amsterdam (1987) designed by architects Jan Benthem (* 1952) and Mels Crouwel (* 1953) stand for a building that blends in with the structures of an existing urban environment Theater center in Breda (1992–95) by Hertzberger and the headquarters of the Nederlandse Middenstandsbank (NMB) in Amsterdam (1979–86) by Anton Carel Alberts (* 1927, † 1999). In addition to R. Koolhaas (Kunsthalle in Rotterdam, 1987–92) and his office »OMA«, architects such as W. Arets (Art Academy in Maastricht, 1989–93; University Library in Utrecht, 1997–2004), Bert Dirrix (* 1954) and Rein van Wylick (office building, Eindhoven, 1988–90), K. van Dongen (theater, Leeuwarden, 1990–93) and the architectural office “Mecanoo” (restaurant “Boompjes Pavillon” in Rotterdam, 1990; university library in Delft, 1993–98) continues the tradition of the clear structural design.

Plastic

In the field of sculpture, the artists associated with the Amsterdam School were Lambertus Zijl (* 1866, † 1947) and Hendrik van den Eynde (* 1869, † 1939) significant. The Belgian sculptor G. Vantongerloo , a member of the Stijl Group, set the trend for the constructivist work of the younger generation with his stereometric sculptures: CN Visser , André Volten (* 1925, † 2002) and others.

Fine arts

According to ehealthfacts, the painting of romance tied to the “Golden Age” of (Andreas Schelfhout, * 1787, † 1870; BC Koekkoek ); the Hague School led to Impressionism (JH Maris , JB Jongkind , GH Breitner ). V. van Gogh , whose paintings are characterized by strong colors and an expressive brushstroke, was of European influence.

The Art Nouveau in its specifically Dutch form of symbolism was v. a. represented by J. Thorn-Prikker and J. Toorop . The group ” De Stijl “, who developed a painting based on pure color and radically simplified geometric forms (T. van Doesburg ,B. van der Leck , P. Mondrian ) had a great influence on constructivist painting. As a counter-reaction to constructivism, surrealist (Pieter Ouborg, * 1893, † 1953) and realistic tendencies (Charley Toorop, * 1891, † 1955; Carel Willink, * 1900, † 1983; Pyke Koch, * 1901, † 1991). B. van Velde , who lives in Paris , inspired American abstract expressionist painters (including W. De Kooning). In the field of graphics, v. a. MC Escher and A. Heyboer stand out. The members of the Cobra group, founded in 1948, made a significant contribution to European post-war art. J. Schoonhoven founded the group »Nul« in 1961 with Armando and Henk Peeters (* 1925, † 2013), which was close to the German group »Zero«. This constructivist tendency is continued with strong colored accents such as Peter Struycken (* 1939), Bob Bonies (* 1937), Willem Kloppers (* 1937) and André van Lier (* 1951), who mainly realize their picture ideas in the genres of painting and sculpture. In parallel with these artists, Marinus van Boezem (* 1934) and Jan van Munster (* 1939) work with electronic media, photography and artificial light. In the field of experimental photography and video art stepped J. Dibbet forth. Contributions to conceptual photography also rendered G. Dekkers and Ger van Elk (* 1941), who, like J. Dibbet 1968 co-founder of the “International Institute for the Re-Education of Artists”. Also worth mentioning are Siert Dallinga (* 1954), Ab van Hanegem (* 1960) and Catharina Alina Wertheim (* 1962), R. Scholte , Hugo Kaagman (* 1955) and Job Koelewijn (* 1962). The Dutch Electronic Art Festival (DEAF) has been taking place in Rotterdam since 1994. a. is dedicated to the arts in new media.

Netherlands Modern Arts

Applied art and design

Significant products (especially glass, porcelain) were made in Art Nouveau; The constructivist design (especially furniture) emanating from » De Stijl « had a European impact. Recently v. a. the designer network “Droog Design”, founded in 1993 by the designer Gijs Bakker (* 1942) and the design critic Renny Ramakers (* 1946) , which markets the products of different designers, attracted attention.