HISTORY: THE FRENCH OCCUPATION
The painful loss of Negapatam gave rise to a series of internal troubles also influenced by the new ideas coming from France, and the state estate, once wanted by the petty bourgeoisie, was now opposed by this because it became conservative. A revolt, which broke out in 1787 and favored by France, which aimed to subject the Netherlands to its own political influence, was immediately crushed by Prussian intervention, while the French dared not move. The ancient order was restored and many followers of the new ideas forced to go into exile. However, this emigration, when the wars provoked by the revolutionary government of Paris broke out a few years later, greatly favored the French invasion carried out by Pichegru. (1795). The Netherlands, occupied and transformed into the Batavian Republic, realized very soon how much damage the invasion was bringing: the French occupation of Belgium, which later became annexation, led to the opening of the Schelde and the activation of the port of Antwerp, until then closed to trade for the benefit of the Netherlands, and the activities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam were seriously damaged. The Batavian Republic, a puppet state, soon found itself at war with England, which easily occupied the Cape Colony and Ceylon. Changed into a kingdom for Luigi Bonaparte (1806) Holland was forced to apply the continental block, suffering very serious damage to its economy. Annexed to the Empire in 1810 and further damaged by the more rigorous application of the continental blockade, Holland was one of the first countries subjected to Napoleon to revolt against his tyranny after the battle of Leipzig (1813); the Oranges were recalled the same year and the Netherlands, transformed at the Congress of Vienna (1815) into a hereditary monarchy for William I of Orange (1813-40), also included in their territory Luxembourg and the reluctant Belgium both to create, according to the mentality of the time, a barrier to France, and to obtain compensation for the loss suffered in favor of England of the colonies above remember.
HISTORY: THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE DEMOCRATIC-PARLIAMENTARY REGIME
The union with Belgium, however, did not last long: the partiality shown by William I for the Dutch in command posts, together with the new rivalry over which city should be the capital and with the ancient rivalries of an economic, religious and linguistic character, brought to the Belgian Revolution of 1830 which, despite William I’s stubborn resistance to accepting the fait accompli (which was also favored by the Franco-British), resulted in the creation of the independent kingdom of Belgium. The mutilation of his state, which William I recognized only in 1839, was followed by years of peace that yielded ample progress in the internal field due to the beneficial influence of the triumph of political and, in part, also economic liberalism. The occupation of the islands of the East Asia hitherto only partially occupied; new economic systems were introduced in those distant countries and slavery was also abolished, with benefits for all parties. Having successfully overcome the international crisis in Luxembourg of 1867, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 and the detachment of Luxembourg for purely dynastic reasons in 1890, according to zipcodesexplorer, the Netherlands overcame the First World War with no damage other than that caused by the British naval blockade; but they did not manage to escape unscathed from the second: invaded by Hitler’s troops in May 1940 and put out of action in a few days, they suffered a harsh German occupation, while the government and Queen Wilhelmina (1890-1948) sheltered in Great Britain and the Dutch Indies were occupied by the Japanese (1941-42), allies of Germany. Liberated by the Anglo-Americans in 1944-45, the Netherlands, despite the damage suffered by the war and the loss of rich Indonesia, were able to recover in a short time so as to create a healthy economy supported by a solid currency, the florin, which had become one of the strongest in the world. Inside, the implementation of a democratic-parliamentary regime that had already begun in the century was completed without shock. XIX (in 1980 Queen Juliana abdicated and her daughter Beatrice ascended the throne).