Between the 1960s and 1980s, however, a certain governmental instability characterized the political life of the Netherlands. Since 1982, Ruud Lubbers of the Christian Democratic Party, on the other hand, knew how to restore a certain political stability to the country by maintaining the leadership of the government for a decade and by forging government alliances with the right-wing liberal forces. Several ruling coalitions followed from 1989 in which the forces of the center-right ruled with those of the center-left (governments led by W. Kok between 1994 and early 2002). In those years (March 1995), however, the electoral consensus grew for the liberal party (VVD), proponent of economic austerity, privatization and immigration control, which managed to become the first Dutch political force. In October of the same year the government proposed two important constitutional reforms: the introduction of the “corrective” referendum on the laws approved by Parliament and the modification of the electoral system. In 2002, the eve of the legislative elections was troubled by the scandal linked to the behavior of the Dutch Blue Helmets in Bosnia (for higher orders, they witnessed the Srebrenica massacre in 1995 without intervening), which resulted in the resignation of Kok, and, above all, by the ‘ murder of populist and xenophobic leader Pym Fortuyn, whose following was steadily increasing. The response from the polls in May rewarded the center-right parties (and more particularly the CDA and the list named after Pym Fortuyn) and marked the collapse of progressives, liberals and Labor. The leadership of the new government was therefore entrusted to Jan Peter Balkenende, of the Christian Democratic Party. With the electoral consultation of January 2003, the Christian Democrats confirmed their primacy by obtaining, with 44 seats, the majority in Parliament, while the Pim Fortuyn List suffered from a sharp decline in preferences. According to topb2bwebsites, labor was severed by a few votes from the Christian Democrats, still obtaining 42 seats. In June 2005, in a consultative referendum, the population rejected the ratification of the new European Constitution, while in June 2006 the government resigned due to the withdrawal of one of the coalition parties, following a problem with an immigrant deputy. Early elections were held in November and were won by the outgoing premier’s party with 41 seats. In February 2007, Balkenende gave birth to a new executive comprising the CDA, the Labor (PvdA) and the Christian-Social (CU). In February 2010, following a discussion on the NATO mission in Afghanistan, the premier announced the breakup of the government coalition and the break with Labor, the following elections (June) saw the victory for only one seat of the liberals of the VVd and the growth of the Right (Freedom Party); the Christian-Socialists and Labor are defeated. In October, the liberal Mark Rutte assumed the post of prime minister. In the’ April 2012 after difficult negotiations within the majority on economic policies, the premier resigned; the early elections in September saw the victory of the VVd (41 seats) followed by the Labor Party of the PvdA (38 seats). In October, the former premier Rutte was charged with forming a new government, which, in order to face the international economic crisis, launched economic measures based on austerity, with the effect of reducing popular support. In 2013 Queen Beatrix abdicated in favor of her son William Alexander (1967-), who ascended the throne with the name of William IV. In the 2014 European elections the VVD was defeated by the D66 party. In 2016, a referendum was held on the ratification of a trade agreement between Ukraine and European countries for the creation of a free trade area, which saw the victory of the No with 61.1% of the votes. This result has been interpreted as the diffusion within the country of Eurosceptic positions, however denied by the political elections of 2017, which saw the reaffirmation of the European VVD. The party of xenophobic and populist tendency PVV, led by G. Wilders, however, saw its consensus grow, obtaining 13.1% of the votes and establishing itself as the second national party. In October 2017 Ritte formed a coalition government consisting of VVD, D66 and the progressive party Christen- Democratisch Appèl. The 2019 European elections saw the surprise victory, with 18.10% of the votes, of the Labor Party. Rutte’s VVD was in second place, while the Eurosceptic PVV saw a sharp decline in consensus.