CULTURE: MINOR ARTS
In the field of minor arts, the production of glass had a notable development in the Netherlands, the oldest documented record of which dates back to 1541. The fame of Dutch and Flemish glass is mainly due to the quality of the engravings and the originality of the shapes and materials.. Initially the art of glass was affected by the Venetian influence (numerous Italian glassmakers worked in fact from the mid-16th century in different areas of the country) and later by the English and German influence. Ceramic production has a centuries-old tradition in the Netherlands, which flourished particularly in the second half of the sixteenth century and in the seventeenth century. Delft majolica is famouswith characteristic decorations in white and blue, of oriental imitation. While the art of tapestry, however rare in the Netherlands, did not have any originality, the cabinet-making was noteworthy in the century. XVII-XVIII, who elaborated with a very high level technique models derived first from Italy and Spain, then above all from France.
According to physicscat, the history of the music of the Netherlands knew the period of its greatest splendor in the sec. XV and XVI, coinciding with the flowering of the Franco-Flemish school which developed in an area roughly corresponding to Holland, Belgium and the northern provinces of France. The main centers of the school became universally famous for the excellence of the performers and composers; both were highly sought after in all European countries, in which they exported a style based on the systematic use of imitated counterpoint, destined to exist until the end of the sixteenth century as an international language, in which the major personalities and the most important technical-expressive achievements of Renaissance music. When the Republic of the United Provinces gained independence from Spain, the musical life of the northern Netherlands took on independent characteristics from that of the southern Netherlands, where it went through a phase of greater decline. The musical life of the southern Netherlands was characterized by a long survival of the traditional contrapuntal style, which was followed, towards the end of the seventeenth century, by the imitation of Italian and French models. The most important personalities are to be identified in the Fiocco dynasty (of Venetian origin) and in PH Bréhy, J. van Helmont, P. Lamalle, AM AM Grétry and A. Gresnick. Particularly remarkable was the instrumental repertoire both as regards the keyboard instruments (where P. Cornet, V. de la Faille, JB Loillet, J.-H. Fiocco, C.-J. van Helmont and others emerged) and in the in the field of orchestral music (where Loillet himself, W. de Fesch, P. van Maldere, H.-F. Delange were noted among others). In the northern Netherlands the last figure of great importance was JP Sweelinck, who made a fundamental contribution to the German organ school and had among his followers in Holland A. van Noordt (d. 1675). The Calvinist Church did not favor developments of particular importance in the field of sacred music, while there was a notable diffusion of music for instrumental ensembles in bourgeois chamber societies called Collegia Musica, from which the first Dutch concert societies were born in the eighteenth century, whose repertoire, alongside works by Italian, Austrian and German authors, included works by W. de Fesch (1687-1761) and especially P. Hellendaal (1721-99). The lack of great Dutch musicians did not prevent the musical life from being of a high level, open to many of the major musicians of the time and also supported by a thriving music publishing business, which had one of the major centers in Amsterdam, among other things with the famous house of Roger and Le Cène. Almost absent it was in the sec. XVII-XVIII a specifically Dutch melodramatic production. During the century. XIX, and in particular in the second half, the conditions were laid for the birth of a more autonomous national school. The influence of German musical romanticism predominated for several decades: Mendelssohn; instead Alphons Diepenbrock (1862-1921) welcomed suggestions from Wagner and Debussy. Together with him are considered founders of the modern Dutch national school B. Zweers (1854-1924) and J. Wagenaar. The production of the twentieth century welcomes German and above all French influences, sometimes mediating them with national instances: we recall W. Pijper, H. Badings, G. Landré (1905-68), H. Henkemans. The only composer of this generation to make the dodecaphonic method his own was K. van Baaren (1906-70). With the exception of R. de Leeuw, his students are the most significant representatives of the last decades, including P. Schat, Louis Andriessen, J. van Vlijimen.