Kazakhstan as an Independent State

Kazakhstan as an Independent State

On October 25, 1990, the Supreme Soviet declared the Kazakh SSR sovereign under its President N. Nazarbayev.

Domestic political development: After the failed coup by Orthodox Communist forces (19-21 August 1991), Nazarbayev dissolved the CP, some of its members reorganized and retained a dominant role in the administrative structures. On December 1, 1991, the population voted for Nazarbayev, unopposedto the president. With the law of December 16, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Kazakhstan proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 21, 1991. On January 28, 1993 the parliament adopted a new constitution, which was replaced by the revised version by referendum on August 30, 1995. On November 15, 1993, Kazakhstan introduced its own currency (tenge). The parliamentary elections of 7 March 1994, which ended with the victory of the National Unity Party, which was close to Nazarbayev, were declared invalid by the Constitutional Court in March 1995; the president then dissolved parliament. About a plebiscite carried out on April 29, 1995 to extend his term of office until December 1, 2000, about the new constitution and new elections (December 1995) Nazarbayev emerged stronger from the political crisis, with democratic approaches increasingly being replaced by authoritarian structures. In December 1997 the President, Government and Parliament moved from Almaty to Akmola, which was renamed Astana as the new capital in 1998. The increasingly autocratic ruling President Nazarbayev (reaffirmed by early elections in January 1999) expanded his position of powerthrough a constitutional amendment that was confirmed by both chambers of parliament on January 7, 1998 (including the extension of the presidential term from five to seven years). With the “Law on the First President” (February 6, 2000), Nazarbayev allowed himself ensure important rights for the time after his presidency (e.g. membership in the National Security Council for life, the right to propose the appointment or dismissal of persons in or from key political positions, declaration of a state of emergency).

According to aceinland, the presidential elections on December 4, 2005, in the run-up to which the opposition had been obstructed, was clearly won by the incumbent President Nazarbayev over the other four candidates. In 2007 he initiated another constitutional amendment to strengthen his position of power. The presidential party Nur Otan won all seats in the parliamentary elections that year. In February 2011, Nazarbayev declinedfrom holding a referendum to extend his term of office to 2020. Instead, he held presidential elections on April 3, 2011, in which he was confirmed in office with 95.5% of the votes. The opposition does not submit its own candidates and called for a boycott of what it called the farce of the election. Early parliamentary elections were held on January 15, 2012, and the Nur Otan presidential party won 83 seats. Nazarbayev was confirmed in office in early presidential elections on April 26, 2015 with 97.7% of the vote. His authoritarian regime still did not allow the development of a democratic civil society. Against the background of a. in the wake of falling commodity prices increasingly problematic economic development, President continued Nazarbayev held early parliamentary elections on March 20, 2016 after a corresponding application by the parliament, in which Nur Otan was able to win around 82.2% of the votes and 84 seats. Constitutional amendments passed by the parliament on March 6, 2017 at the initiative of the President formally expanded the powers of the government and parliament. Nazarbayev’s dominant position was nevertheless retained. At the end of February 2019, the president dismissed the government because it had failed in economic policy and failed to raise the standard of living of the population. On March 19, 2019, Nazarbayev, the “father of the nation,” surprisingly resigned his post after three decades in power. Became his interim successor Kassym-Schomart Tokajew (* 1953, sworn in on March 20, 2019), previously the second most powerful man in the state as Chairman of the Senate. The capital Astana was renamed Nursultan in honor of Nazarbayev.

On April 9, 2019, Tokayev announced that he would bring forward the regular election date in 2020 and hold the presidential elections on June 9, 2019. The first of 60 days stipulated by the constitution was thus adhered to; the period was too short for potential candidates to mobilize election campaign funds and to make themselves known to the broader population. Tokayev was elected the only candidate on April 23, 2019 by the ruling Nur Otan in an open vote. In the run-up to the election, there were demonstrations and calls for boycotts in larger cities. The cautious election campaign was not noticeable across the country. Kassym-Schomart Tokayev emerged from the election as the clear winner with 70.96% of the vote. Its main competitor Amirschan Kosanov received 16.23% of the vote. Tokayev was sworn in as President on June 12, 2019.


Aqtöbe, Aktöbe, in Russian Aktjubinsk, until 1891 Aktjube, capital of the Aqtöbe region in northwest Kazakhstan, on the Ilek, in the southern foothills of the Urals, (2019) 429,500 residents.

University, medical academy, college of education, theater, museums; Trade and finance; Iron and steel industry (ironworks), chromium smelting, petrochemicals, machine and equipment construction, food industry (meat processing), in the Aktyubinsk region development, extraction and processing of oil and natural gas; international Airport.

Founded in 1869 as a Russian military settlement, town since 1893.