According to estatelearning, Iraq is a country in Asia. It borders Turkey to the north, Syria to the north-west, Jordan to the west, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east. The country is the successor to ancient Mesopotamia. The capital and largest city is Baghdad. The country officially has the world’s fourth largest proven oil reserves (2005). Iraq sells approximately 2.5 million barrels of oil every day (2011).
The fertile territory of Mesopotamia, between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, has brought us some of the oldest civilizations in the world, such as the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. It was for a long time part of Persia, but in 656 it was conquered by the Arabs, and in 762 the caliphate moved to the new city of Baghdad (close to ancient Babylon ). This city remained the center of the Arab world until it was included in the Ottoman Empire in 1534. In 1915, British troops occupied Iraq, and it ended in independence in 1932.
12,000 BC – Dogs tamed in Iraq.
8000 years BC – Agriculture is invented in northern Iraq, while potatoes are grown in Peru and rice in Southeast Asia. The first cities are built.
6500-3800 FVT – Ubaid Period. The people who entered Mesopotamia began to develop the land. It was an early Euphrates people who did not speak Semitic (ie, neither Hebrew nor Arabic). They are called the Ubadians after the village of Al-Ubaid. The most important things they managed were: Drainage of fields so that they could be used in agriculture, they developed trade, established industries including: weaving and leather sewing, and they found out how to process metal, make masonry and ceramics.
5400 BCE – Eridu is founded according to Sumerian mythology, and the Sumerian royal list states that it is the first city in the world. There is a Sumerian myth very similar to the one about the
Tower of Babylon, called ” Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta ” in English. It is a legend about a series of conflicts between Emmerkar, the king of Unug-Kulaba (Uruk) and an unknown king of Aratta (possibly from modern Iran or Armenia)
5000 BCE – since 5000 BCE there have been cities and palaces from changing cultures. The first well-known culture was the Sumerian, which included i.a. The Ur culture and the Uruk culture. Archaeological excavations have unearthed even older cultures, but the Sumerians are known as the oldest well-documented civilization.
3500 BCE – A wheel is invented in Iraq (a potter’s wheel ).
3500 BC – The Sumerians of Iraq invent the art of writing. The world’s first written language
originated in Uruk (by the Sumerians), and thus this society enters history. In the beginning, the font was a pure pictorial font that was used to facilitate accounting. Eventually, it evolved to be used for scholarly unfolding, and the characters evolved into cuneiform, invented in southern Babylon in 3100 BCE The cuneiform was most common in Mesopotamia, where it first died out approx. 100 EVT. Throughout the period from approx. 3400 FVT. to 100 EVT. the original images gradually became more and more stylized and the number of characters varied considerably.
3300 BC – The wheel is invented in Iraq.
2800-2350 BCE – The early dynastic period. An eventful time, where i.a. the legendary hero Gilgamesh was in all probability king of Uruk.
2700 BCE – Nippur is founded by King Emmebaragesi, who rules over Sumer. Nippur becomes the central cultural and religious center of Sumer. The town was rediscovered in 1851 by Sir Austen Henry Layard.
2334-2200 BCE – The Akkadian Empire.
2279 BCE – The king of Akkad and Sumer (2334-2279), Sargon the Great, died at the height of his power. Posterity remembers him as a great and mighty ruler who united Akkad and Sumer and conquered many independent and rich city-states within the respective territories. One of the stories of his origin is very similar to the story of Moses, who was also sent down the Euphrates River in a reed boat, was rescued by a gardener and eventually king of Akkad. He founded Akkad in 2334 and the Akkadian dynasty. See picture here of his kingdom.
2112-2004 FVT – Ur-III empire.
2095 BCE – The ancient king of Mesopotamia, Ur-Nammu, ruled from 2113-2095 BCE He founded the Ur-III kingdom and is best known for the large number of temple towers, ziggurats, which he had erected around Mesopotamia (including this one ). He died during the battles against the Gutians, an ancient people living in the mountains northeast of Mesopotamia. They helped bring down the Akkadian Empire approx. 2150 BCE, was expelled by Utuhegal, the king of Uruk in 2110 BCE, and then only very sporadic intelligence about them.
2004 FVT – Ur lay starving with salted fields waiting for shiploads of grain from the north when the Elamites from the neighboring kingdom E lam in the east seized the opportunity. They totally plundered the capital and led King Ibbi-Sin (2028-2004 BC) to Elam as a prisoner of war. The Elamites were an ancient kingdom that stretched from southwestern Iran to the east of the Tigris River and north of the Persian Gulf.
2000 BCE – Studies in 2011 revealed that the area around Ur was hard hit by drought from 2200-2000 BCE. The population decreased by 93%. U r was abandoned twice by nomads during this period. At the end of the drought, the Sumerian language became extinct. Read more here.
2000 BCE – Assyria is founded in northern Iraq named after the god Assyria. The first excavations of Assyrian ruin mounds took place in the 1830s and 40s in the cities of Nineveh,
Khorsabad and Nimrud, which, among other things, served as the mark of the colonialists of the time in the Orient.
1900 BCE – A Semitic tribe conquers most of Mesopotamia and settles with their kings.
1894 BCE – Babylon was founded by the Amorite dynasty, a people from ancient Syria.
1800-1595 BCE – The Old Babylonian period.
1800 BCE – The city of Nineveh is referred to at this time as a city with an important place of worship for Ishtar. To many, the city is perhaps best known as the city to which God, according to the book of Jonah in the Old Testament (ch. 3 v. 4), was sent to preach judgment on the wicked city.
1792-1750 BCE – Hammurabi was the 6th king of Babylon. He conquered Sumer and
Akkad and put an end to the Sumerian Isin dynasty. Thus he became the first ruler of the Mesopotamian ancient kingdom, Babylon. After Hammurabi’s death, the Babylonian Empire collapsed under military pressure from the Hittites. Hammurabi is known as one of the earliest legislators with his law collection Hammurabi Law.
1500-1100 BCE – The Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian periods.
883-612 BCE – The New Assyrian Empire. Got under kings like Sargon II, Sennacherib and Assurbanipal created the largest empire the world had ever seen. The real founder of the empire was Assurnasirpal, but it was under the kings Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II that the Assyrian empire was seriously created. The last great king, Assurbanipal, ruled over an empire that stretched from western Iran to central Egypt, and north to southern Turkey. In his palace in Nineveh archaeologists found a huge library of cuneiform tablets that form the framework of much of the contemporary knowledge of Akkadian literature and science, and have been one of the first and largest libraries of its kind in antiquity.
626-539 BCE – The New Babylonian Empire. One of the largest Empire kings, Nebuchad nezzar II, entry into 597 f. £. Jerusalem and in the following years deported large sections of the Jewish population. In 539 took Persia Ky praise II imperial capital of Babylon, and brought it nybabylonske empire to fall.
o.600 BCE – Babylon’s Hanging Gardens was a garden in Babylon in present-day Iraq. They are attributed to Nebuchadnezzar II who must have built them. They are described in exuberant terms by several Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, but in addition there is no concrete evidence of their existence. In fact, the gardens are not mentioned in any Babylonian sources even though there are accounts of the king’s palace. Herodotus described the city walls of Babylon and the Tower of Babel, and his accounts have been partly backed by archaeological finds; but Herodotus does not mention the gardens in a word. Excavations in Babylon have yielded certain finds, but not yet anything that can explain or justify the narratives associated with the gardens.
593 FVT – Ezekiel’s Wheel. Of all the “UFO cases” that can be read in the Bible, Ezekiel is the most mentioned.
In the Old Testament, in Ezekiel 1: 4-28, we can read a deadly account of blazing fire, sparkling white gold, and wheels in wheels. About human-like creatures, sounds like rumbling armies and strange eyes. Ezekiel is an excellent example of a type of doomsday writing that was very common in the Holy Land in the centuries before and after our era. They characterize both Daniel chapter 2 and 7 and Revelation. But some UFO enthusiasts believe that Ezekiel saw and described a flying saucer and the astronauts who stepped out of it. That he literally reproduced something that happened in reality. But doomsday writings are as difficult to interpret as Nostradamus’ prophecies, for the language is symbolic and figurative. So even though the good Ezekiel tried to explain that “wheel in wheel” is like the rainbow or “his radiance”, that is, God,
400 BC – The Babylonians begin to make horoscopes that should say something about a person’s life, based on the position of the planets. Read more about Babylon on Wikipedia.
1922-28 – During this period Sir Leonard Woolley found i.a. the so-called royal tombs in Ur. Wooley was rewarded for his exemplary and disciplined archaeological work in 1935. He was also the one who suggested that the flood described in Genesis was local, after finding traces of floods in Ur that were 644 km long and 160 km wide. To the locals, it certainly felt like “the whole world.”
1980s – Iraq launches a protracted war on 22 September 1980 with neighboring Iran, lasting until 20 August 1988. In parallel with the war against Iran, Saddam Hussein carried out a relentless repression of a possible internal opposition. Shiite religious leaders who refused to submit were brutally murdered. Many thousands were arrested and tortured. Particular brutality was used against the Kurds in northern Iraq. The so-called al Anfal campaign included the physical extermination of many thousands of villages and the massacres of hundreds of thousands of people. After all the attacks campaign, it is believed that 182,000 people have disappeared. Most, predominantly men, were executed in deserts in western and southwestern Iraq. Earthly remains of women and children have also been found in mass graves.
1988 – 16/17. March – Halabja (Kurdish city in northern Iraq) was attacked with several types of poison gas. The attack is the largest gas attack on civilians in world history, resulting in around 5,000 deaths and many thousands with serious chemical damage. After the Gulf War, tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians from i.a. Basra, Al-Hillah and the Kurdish areas killed and later found in mass graves.
1990 – August 2. The Gulf War was a conflict between a 34-nation US-led coalition with a mandate from the UN and Iraq led by Saddam Hussein, who invaded Kuwait. Operation Desert Storm, the US military name for the attack phase itself, is often used about the war. The war ended on February 28, 1991.
1991 – January 17. UN allied forces launch Operation Desert Storm against Iraq, which has occupied Kuwait since August 1990. 2,500 fighters and bombers drop 18,000 tons of bombs against, among others, the Iraqi capital Baghdad. On January 18, Iraq fires missiles at Israel. It is a reaction to the Allies’ extensive bombing of Iraq the night before.
2003 – March 20. The United States launches a missile attack on Iraq at 3.30 Danish time. It is an hour and a half after the deadline for President Saddam Hussein. The invasion of Iraq has begun. On April 9, U.S. troops move into the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, under dispersed resistance, and are received by the residents as liberators. A ten-meter-high statue of Saddam Hussein is toppled as a symbolic act. On April 14, US and British troops move into Saddam Hussein’s hometown and former Tikrit power base under scattered resistance. All of Iraq’s significant cities are now under control.
On May 1, US President George W. Bush proclaimed that the Iraq war was over. Following this, the Folketing decided to send around 370 men as Denmark’s military contribution to an international security force in Iraq. in July / August another 42 soldiers were deployed.
On June 6, Dancon / Iraq was a Danish army of 500 men and women divided into 8 changing teams. On June 12, 2003, the Danish soldiers formally took control of the Al Qu rnah area from the British soldiers. Al Quarnah is considered by local legends to be the entrance to the Garden of Biblical Eden. One of the headquarters’ first camps was therefore also called ” Camp Eden ” (9km northwest of A-Qurnah), ” Camp Yggdrasil ” (15km west of Basra ) and the last “Cimic-House” (former Ba’ath Party building in the city) .
On December 13, Saddam Hussein was captured in Tikrit, where he was hiding in an underground cave.
2004 – February 22 – Berlingske Tidende quotes an anonymous source in the Armed Forces Intelligence Service as saying that the intelligence service’s reports on Iraq were almost transcripts of American and British reports and were used as a rubber stamp for the invasion. The source turns out to be a major of the reserve Frank Søholm Grevil, who is later sentenced to 6 months unconditional imprisonment for passing on confidential information.
On August 2, the press writes that the Danish intelligence officer Annemette Hommel has been sent home on the basis of accusations of ill-treatment in connection with the interrogation of Iraqis.
2004 – September – Camp Danevang was created by the remnants of Camp Eden which had been closed down. Danevang was set up at the British Shaiba Logistics Base in Basra. Its area of responsibility covered an area the size of Funen. The Danish troop contingent, DANCON, also included 53 Lithuanian soldiers. The base was closed down and surrendered to the Iraqis in March 2007 and transferred to Camp Einherjer at the British Basra Air Station, west of Basra.
2004 – November 8 – US occupation forces launch an operation against Fallujah to clear the city of insurgents.
On July 2, Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein were killed in Mosul, and the city has since been marked by confrontations between Iraqi rebels and US troops.
2005 – May – Battle of Qurnah. Iraqi insurgents tried to take control of Al-Qurna from the Danes, Lithuanians and British soldiers. Sergeant Ole Gretlund received The Defense Medal for saving the lives of several Lithuanian soldiers.
2006 – On 12 January, Annemette Hommel is indicted under section 15 of the Military Penal Code for negligence. After being partially convicted in Copenhagen City Court, Annemette Hommel is acquitted in a subsequent appeal in the Eastern High Court.
2006 – December 30 – Saddam Hussein is executed by hanging at 5:57 local time in Baghdad.
2007 – July 20 – The Danish soldiers run on one last patrol. They are then taken home during the month of August. It has been preceded by four years of military presence in Iraq, which until July 2007 has cost eight Danish soldiers their lives and more than two billion kroner in expenses for soldiers and reconstruction.
July 29 – While the Danish battalion in Iraq is on its way home, the Air Force is on its way to Iraq. 4 helicopters and approx. 50 men from the Air Force have arrived in Basra, where they will support the British and Iraqi forces with aerial observations over the next 5 months. The helicopter contribution will be in Iraq until the end of 2007. See h is DR’s theme page on the war in Iraq.
Great Flood in Noah’s Homeland
“The windows of heaven were opened, and the rain fell for forty days and forty nights.” In First Mosesbog story of how God punishes mankind with a flood drowned all living things on earth. The only ones who escape are Noah and his family, who are warned by God and who, on his advice, build a ship with room for a couple of all animal species. As the water gradually sinks, the earth begins to be populated again by their descendants. In fact, there is evidence that a huge flood has occurred in Noah’s home region, in the area between the Euphrates and Tigris in present-day Iraq. At archeological excavations in the 1920s, a two and a half meter thick layer of mud was found at a depth of 12 meters, completely without archaeological finds. Below were found cultural layers from even older civilizations. The only explanation is that huge bodies of water have covered the area. Although the flood did not, as the Bible claims, drown “the whole world,” those affected by it must have experienced it that way. ( All About History 8/2008 )