|With a few
exceptions, the daily press in the US has been in an
accelerating crisis in recent years. Heavily falling
editions and advertising revenue have resulted in closed
newspapers and bankruptcies. Attempts at solutions have been
cuts, mergers and reduced release rates. In 2013, there were
approximately 1,350 daily newspapers in the United States,
which was just over a hundred fewer than in 2002.
Investments on the Internet have not met expectations and in
no way compensate for the reduced advertising revenue for
the printed products. In 2011, the industry increased its
online advertising revenues by just over $ 200 million,
while print advertising revenues decreased by $ 2 billion,
compared to 2010.
Many analysts see the development as a major problem of
democracy. When the editors are cut down and more and more
major cities lack a daily newspaper, the monitoring of
political power decreases.
Some attempts have been made with so-called paywalls for
the newspapers' websites, but no standard has been set yet.
One model has been successfully tested by the New York
Times, the country's third largest daily newspaper with a
circulation of just over 1 million copies. (2012). It means
that a certain number of articles can be read for free for a
month and if you want to read more you have to buy a digital
subscription. The fact that the model works for the New York
Times is because there is a large readership outside the US,
but with a few exceptions, all the country's newspapers are
local or regional and the average editions are below 40,000
The United States' largest daily, the Wall Street
Journal, has also been successful with its digital strategy.
The magazine has over 2 million in circulation, of which
over half a million subscribers to the digital edition.
The newspapers have played an important role in the
development of society in the United States. Because the
press, as well as radio and TV, has mainly developed
independently of state power and parties, it has early taken
the place as "third state power". The Watergate business
1972–74 is a good example of abusive circumstances revealed
through investigative journalism. It began with articles in
the Washington Post by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward and
ended with President Nixon's departure.
Another journalistic approach is summarized in the
concept of new journalism, which was coined in the 1960s. It
refers to a more literary form of journalism. advanced
interview technique tries to reconstruct an event.
Journalists such as Hunter S. Thompson and Jimmy Breslin
have formed schools far beyond the US borders.
The first newspapers in North America began to be
published around 1700 and usually had European role models,
for example. The Pennsylvania Gazette, published by Benjamin
Franklin. The press was later an important player in the
struggle for independence from the English colonial power.
After the revolution, the magazines developed qualitatively,
and the majority joined some party. Freedom of the press was
guaranteed in the first constitutional supplement in 1791.
The number of newspapers increased sharply, and at the time
of the civil war there were about 4,000 local and regional
A new phase in US press history began in 1833 with the
founding of the New York Sun, the first pen magazine. It was
cheaper than its predecessors and was sold by newspaper boys
on the streets. In terms of content, it prioritized lighter
articles in various subjects: local news, crime and
entertainment material. Followers were The New York Herald
(1835), which under JG Bennett further changed journalism.
Other important newspapers founded at this time were the
Baltimore Sun (1837), the New York Tribune (1841) and the
New York Times (1851). During the 1880s, competition in the
newspaper market increased through the advent of the
sensation newspapers, the so-called yellow press. In WR
Hearst's New York World and Joseph Pulitzer's
Journal-American, sex, crimes and disclosures dominated the
privacy of individuals. Hearst and Pulitzer also acquired
rural newspapers and laid the foundation for large newspaper
chains. The owners conducted active journalism and ran
domestic and foreign policy campaigns.
The press gradually concentrated during the 20th century,
including the local, to major newspaper chains such as
Knight-Ridder, Times Mirror, Thomson Newspapers and Gannett.
Of these, only Gannett remains and the company is the United
States' largest newspaper publisher. Among other things, it
publishes the country's third largest daily newspaper, USA
Today, with a circulation of over 1.7 million copies.
The large quality newspapers in the United States play a
crucial role in politics and public debate, although they
have relatively limited distribution. A number of
columnists, whose articles are published in various
newspapers across the country (so-called syndication), are
of great importance for the political conversation.
The first news agency, the Associated Press (AP), was
founded in 1846 by a number of newspapers and is one of the
leading in the world with over 3,700 employees and over 300
local offices around the world.
Known as the greatest power in the world, the United
States boasts the first position when it comes to Gross
Domestic Product, which represents the sum of all goods
produced in the country over a period. The country has a GDP
of US $ 19.39 trillion , according to the International
Monetary Fund, ahead of countries like China and Japan. The
economy in 2018 grew 2.9% compared to the previous year.
The American economy is based
on the agricultural, industrial and service sectors. In
agriculture, the production of corn, soy and cotton stands
out, with the use of high technologies. In the industrial
sector, the production of machines, electronics, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals and automobiles stands out. The services
sector contributes to more than three quarters of GDP.
It is also important to highlight oil production in the
country, as well as natural gas. In 2019 oil production
broke a record, according to the United States Federal
Energy Agency, reaching 470.6 million barrels.
Oil is one of the most exported products by the United
States. According to the Economic Complexity Observatory,
the United States is the third largest export economy among
all countries. In 2017, US $ 1.25 trillion of products and
service was exported. The main products exported to
countries such as China, Mexico, Canada and Japan were:
- refined oil
- planes, cars and helicopters
- packaged medicines
Regarding imports, the country imported US $ 2.16
trillion in 2017. The goods and services basically came from
the same countries to which it exported. The main imports
- petroleum crude;
- transmission equipment;
- digital disk drives;
- vehicle parts.