Hungary Architecture

Hungary Architecture

In architecture, an attempt at liberation from academic historicism was already made in the last years of the nineteenth century by Edmondo Lechner (1845-1914), who believed he could give rise to a new national style from rustic art and popular decoration (Museum of decorative arts, the parish church of the 10th district of Budapest). The attempt, followed for some time by many, is now considered to have failed. Eugenio Lechner (1878) attempted a national architecture, recalling the Hungarian Renaissance; Desiderio Hültl (1870) and Giulio Wälder (1884) were inspired by the local baroque. Today rational architecture, whose forerunners were Aladár Árkay (1868-1932; church in Győr), Béla Lajtha (1875-1920; business school in Budapest), and Béla Rerich (Szeged cathedral square), among the young people he found excellent representatives such as Bartolomeo Árkay (1901; parish church of Városmajor and Villa Bátor, Budapest), Giulio Rimanóczy (1903; church of Pasarét, Budapest), Dionisio Györgyi (1886) and Virgilio Bierbauer (1893). In the sculpture we mention Francesco Medgyessy (1881) and the sculptors who came out of the Hungarian academy in Rome: the pure and classic Paolo Pátzay (1896), the nervous Tiberio Vilt (1905), the massive Borbereky (1907), the balanced Abonyi-Grandtner Eugenio and the excellent medalists Gualterio Madarassy (1909) and Giuseppe Ispánky (1906), who renewed this artistic genre in the sense of Pisanello and the fifteenth century medalists. Among the painters, the school of Paris first had some echoes, as in Béla Czóbel (1883), in Roberto Berény (1887), in Aurelio Bernáth (1895), in Giulio Derkovits (1894), in Emerico Szobotka (1890). Today the influence of the Hungarian Academy of Rome and of the Italian twentieth century is growing more and more in the avant-garde, transformed by the national temperament. The dynamic William Aba-Novák (1894), who also tried the fresco with great success, belongs to this group, renewing it with his strong temperament and with his new ideas (Jásszentandrás, parish; Szeged, frescoes in the tower of the Middle Ages, and in the monument to the heroes of war); the lyricist Paolo Molnár C. (1894), also a delicate sacred painter and strong wood engraver; Eugenio Medveczky (1902), Béla Kontuly (1904), Giorgio Kákay-Szabó (1903) and Francesco Dex (1901) are closer to the trends of the Italian twentieth century; Aurelio Emőd (1897), who began with Impressionism and then closed his style under the impression of his Roman studies. Stefano Szőnyi (1894) was also an academic from Rome; his lyrical colourism and his individual vision set him up. at the forefront of young Hungarian painters. Giulio Rudnay (1878) follows in the footsteps of Michele Munkácsy, renewing them with more modern means, while Giuseppe Koszta (1864), colorist full of contrasts of light and mystical intuition, and Dionisio Csánky (1885), very expressive realist and brilliant technician, they are worthy continuers of the great interpreters of the homeland.

Folk art. – According to Top-medical-schools, Hungarian folk art is characterized by its unity. Secular property of the Hungarian nation, it remained faithful to ancient traditions even when the great national art, due to political events, could not develop. The artistic activity of the people was expressed in works of wood, leather, bone, canvas and ceramics. Wood was used not only for small tools and furniture, but also for construction purposes. Beyond the Danube and especially in the Székely land of Transylvania we find the most characteristic wooden constructions. The façade, the entrance door and the pillars supporting the roof are richly sculpted. The decoration technique in these districts is relief or serrated carving. On the other side of the Danube, on the other hand, the sculpted parts are often adorned with colors. The residents of Győr, Vas and Veszprém distinguished themselves in the carved furniture. THE palóc (Nógrád), adorn their furniture with scenes from rural life and hunting. In the great Alföld and in Transylvania the furniture is painted. The most ornate and oldest piece of furniture besides the chairs is the tulip-shaped chest of drawers, where the bride’s wedding trousseau is placed. In the sculpture of smaller objects the shepherds from beyond the Danube and the Mátra stand out, often applying figurative scenes. Another branch of popular art is work on leather, in which the shepherds of the great Alföld excel, for whom this kind of art constitutes a very ancient occupation. Animal skin is adorned with ratios of colored skins or with rich embroidery. The shepherds themselves decorate the horn with sculptures or paintings; the women take care of the processing and embroidery of linen. Embroidery is applied to both women’s and men’s clothing. The richness of the Hungarian folk costume is due to these embroideries. In addition to the clothes, the sheets are also richly embroidered. The embroidery can be in one color or richly multicolored. The most used colors are red, blue, black and yellow. The ornaments are almost everywhere of floral character. The most beautiful embroideries are found in Mezőkövesd, Kalotaszeg, Nógrád, and Alföld. Sopron is characteristic for the white batiste works, applied on the white tulle. Another highly developed branch of Hungarian folk art is pottery, which is widespread throughout the country. The best products are found in Alföld and Transylvania and are very rich in both shape and decoration. In the’ Hungarian folk art there is harmony between the material, the motif and the purpose. Characteristic is the rational architectural sense, which is never disturbed by excess of decoration or color. The most common motif is above all the flower, especially the rose and the tulip, but we also find elements taken from the animal world, and in particular songbirds. Absolutely missing in this art the decorative-geometric element and the symbolic one, which characterize oriental, Romanian and Russian folk art.

Hungary Architecture