Poverty, discrimination and oppression affect people all over the world. Terror, refugee traumas and other crises also put us to the test. While many take human rights for granted, others risk their lives to defend them and the human right to a safe and dignified life. In many places, it has also become more dangerous to defend human rights.
- What are human rights?
- What role does human rights play?
- How are these dishes safe and broken today?
- What kind of dilemma can those who are to administer human rights face?
2: What are human rights?
In short, human rights are the rights one has because one is human – regardless of age, gender, skin color, religion, nationality or political opinion.
The idea that there are such universal rights that apply to everyone , arose several hundred years ago. However, there was no international system to secure these rights before the UN was established to create peace, development and cooperation. It happened after all the atrocities that happened during World War II: Around fifty million people were killed, and the Nazis defined some groups – Jews, gypsies, homosexuals and others – as inferior. An important path to peace is through the promotion and observance of human rights.
“All human beings are born free and with the same human dignity and human rights”, it says in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN in 1948. The declaration contains 30 articles that define and show what rights the individual human being has. Later, the UN adopted a number of human rights conventions . Contrary to the declaration, conventions are legally binding . The conventions deepen various rights, such as the rights of women, children, refugees and the disabled. According to Sportingology, UDHR stands for Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Human rights can be divided into two main categories:
- Political and civil law is about legal security, freedom from abuse and the right to participate politically in society. Freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and the principle that everyone should be equal before the law are examples of political and civil rights.
- Economic, social and cultural rights are about having the right to have our basic needs met. The right to education and work and a satisfactory standard of living are examples of such rights.
3: How are human rights safeguarded?
Human rights define what duties the government in a country has towards the individual – the right to life, liberty and not to be discriminated against or tortured. The state must respect, secure and promote human rights.
There are laws and systems for human rights at national, regional and global levels.
Anyone who believes that courts have been violated can report abuse and bring their case to court. If one loses the case and it is tried in the highest court in a country (Supreme Court in Norway), one can appeal the state to the UN or an international or regional court, for example the European Court of Human Rights .
Human rights are often created in horrors:
- First, new norms and rules must emerge between peoples and states – often it is elders who fight them.
- After international documents defining the human rights obligations of states have been developed and signed,
- must the states – preferably a national assembly – ratify(finally approve) documents, that is, accept the duties and responsibilities they entail.
- A new international agreement seldomenters into force before a certain number of states have ratified it.
- Often a state has to change laws in its own countries so that they comply with international obligations.
- They must then fulfill or comply with these human rights obligations towards individuals in their country. There is a shortage here in a number of countries.
The governing bodies must submit reports to the UN on how they are complying with the agreements. During the so-called universal, periodic review of the UN Human Rights Council , all member countries are examined – including Norway as a party to an agreement – by other countries, which are also parties, on how they comply with human rights. Although Norway is well placed under human rights law compared to other countries, the use of solitary confinement in detention, custody and imprisonment is some of what Norway has been criticized for.
To help strengthen the implementation and enforcement of human rights by monitoring and reporting on their position in Norway, Norway’s national institution for human rights was established in 2015. The new national institution is subordinate to the Storting, but with an independent and autonomous position.
Independent journalists and human rights organizations – such as Amnesty and Human Rights Watch – also work to safeguard human rights in Norway and other countries.
4: Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights
One often needs great courage to defend our freedoms and rights. Some have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their commitment. The youngest Nobel Prize winner ever is the Pakistani teenage girl Malala Yousafzai. She survived after being shot in the head by the Taliban – who controlled the area where she lived. There she asserted girls’ right to schooling and thus challenged conservative religious forces. The family supported her and encouraged her commitment: ” Thank you for never cutting my wings, and rather letting me fly and keep working for what I am passionate about ,” Malala told her father.
Other Nobel Prize winners are Indian human rights activist Kailash Satyarthi, who has a strong focus on children’s rights and bans on child labor, Aung San Suu Kyi, who fights for democracy and human rights in Burma, and lawyer Shirin Ebadi, who was Iran’s first female judge and fighter for equal rights. both genders.
Still other prize winners include Kenyan Wangari Maathai, who fights for human rights and the environment, Leymah Gbowee, who mobilized thousands of women for non-violent protests for peace in her war-torn homeland of Liberia, and the Tunisian Quartet for National Dialogue. They received the award for their ” decisive contribution to the building of a pluralist democrat in”.