Withdrawal as a colonial power, new foreign and security policy
After the Second World War, according to payhelpcenter, the Netherlands gradually lost its role as a colonial power. In the long run they were unable to maintain their colony of the Dutch East Indies (under pressure from the UN and the USA gave in after two Dutch military actions in 1947 and 1948) and released them on December 27, 1949, with the exception of the area of West New Guinea, as Indonesia Independence. The Netherlands Antilles and Suriname became equal parts of the Netherlands in 1954. As a result of ongoing decolonization, the Netherlands also withdrew from West New Guinea in 1963 and released Suriname into independence in 1975. In terms of security policy, in the post-war period strict neutrality was replaced by an active alliance policy. The Netherlands joined the Brussels Pact in 1948 and NATO in 1949. In 1995 a German-Dutch corps was formed. The Netherlands took part in UN peace missions, among others. 1993–95 with a contingent of soldiers (»Dutchbat«) on the establishment of security zones in Bosnia. The circumstances of the unresisted handover of the city of Srebrenica, which was declared a protected zone, by Dutch blue helmets to Bosnian-Serbian troops in 1995 (afterwards death of thousands of Bosniaks) later led to strong domestic political controversy.
From 1999 Dutch units took part in the peace mission in Kosovo. In July 1999, the European police authority Europol started in The Hague their activity. The Netherlands provided an extensive contingent for international military operations in Afghanistan and in 2009 also took part in the anti-pirate mission Atlanta off the coast of Somalia. Other missions abroad included, among other things. At the end of 2012, participation in the deployment of the “Patriot” missile defense system in Turkey against the background of the civil war in Syria and participation in the 2013 UN stabilization mission in Mali. The downing of a Malaysia Airlines passenger plane over Ukraine on July 17, 2014 caused great sadness in the Netherlands. 189 of the 298 passengers were Dutch citizens. The Netherlands played a major role in the investigation work in the crisis area, but decided not to secure it with a military action. On February 10, 2016, the Dutch parliament decided to expand participation in the military operation against the terrorist militia Islamic State (IS). On June 30, 2016, the UN General Assembly decided that Italy and the Netherlands should share a seat on the UN Security Council in 2017/18. Previously, none of the countries had achieved the necessary majority in five ballots. Italy took the first place on January 1, 2017. In 2018 the seat belonged to the Netherlands. Previously, none of the countries had achieved the necessary majority in five ballots. Italy took the first place on January 1, 2017. In 2018 the seat belonged to the Netherlands. Previously, none of the countries had achieved the necessary majority in five ballots. Italy took the first place on January 1, 2017. In 2018 the seat belonged to the Netherlands.
Eindhoven [.epsilon. NTHO ː və], an industrial city in the province of North Brabant, Netherlands, on the Dommel, with connection to internal channels (2018) 229 100 residents; Technical University, Academy of Industrial Design, University of Applied Sciences, International Institute for Technological Studies; Konzerthaus, “Van Abbemuseum”, Museum Kempenland, DAF Automobiel Museum, Museum of Historical Philips Products and others. In addition to the Philips works founded here in 1891and Van Doorne’s Automobielfabrieken N.V. (DAF trucks), Eindhoven has toolmaking, solar cell production, electronics, clothing, printing and a large dairy, as well as an international logistics center; Airport.
The neo-Gothic Catharinakerk (1860–67 by P. Cuypers) is a cruciform basilica with two west towers. Architecturally noteworthy are the ‘t Hool’ housing estate (designed by J. B. Bakema and J. H. van den Broek; built 1962–72); the “Multifunctioneel Wijkcentrum” (1970–73 and 1978–81 by Frank van Klingeren, * 1919, † 1999, and J. de Weijer); “Evoluon” (1966, by Louis Christiaan Kalff, * 1897, † 1967) built for the Philips company, initially a museum, since 1994 a conference center). The Van Abbemuseum (1936, by Alexander Jacobus Kropholler, * 1881, † 1973) with the second largest collection of modern and contemporary art in the Netherlands was renovated from 1997–2002 and received a modern extension by the architect Abel Cahen (* 1934; interior design by Maarten van Severen, * 1956, † 2005). The tallest building in Eindhoven is the “De Admirant” office and residential high-rise (105 m high, completed in 2006, Dam & Partners architects).
Eindhoven received city rights in 1232. During the Middle Ages, the small town, which until 1648 belonged to the Duchy of Brabant, was plundered and destroyed several times. In the second half of the 19th century, the textile industry, tobacco processing and the light bulb manufacturing in Eindhoven grew rapidly. In 1944, Eindhoven was badly damaged by bombing.