History of Netherlands Part IV

History of Netherlands 4

The post-war period up to the beginning of the 1980s

In the course of the military defeat of Germany (capitulation of the occupation troops on May 5, 1945), according to neovideogames, the Netherlands took smaller German areas (above all Elten) under their administration (incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany in 1963 under the “German-Dutch Compensation Treaty”).

Queen Wilhelmina returned from exile in London in the summer of 1945, but thanked her in 1948 in favor of her daughter Juliana away. Since 1945, the formation of a government has been largely determined by the Catholic People’s Party (KVP; emerged from the RKSP in December 1945) and the Social Democratic Labor Party (PvdA; successor to the SDAP since February 1946); Until the mid-1960s, both parties took turns in the leadership of coalition governments (of different composition). The Liberals (organized in the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy since 1948) and the Protestant parties took part in the government several times. The gradual softening of the traditional will-formation in fixed denominational or ideological associations was characteristic of the development of party and power politics in the 1960s and 1970s. Expression of this development were v. a. the founding of the group Democrats ’66 (D ‘

With the help of the Marshall Plan, which granted the Netherlands around US $ 1 billion, the country’s economy was able to be rebuilt. The governments endeavored to work closely with Belgium and Luxembourg (Benelux). In the conflict between liberal market economy and socialist ideas, a factual, rational line prevailed in the 1950s. With a system of state-sanctioned production and company associations (Productie- en bedrijfschappen), social democracy was able to realize socialist ideas. The technical-industrial change, which had already started before the Second World War, spread more rapidly to many areas of the economy (especially to agriculture). In the 1970s, the governments led by social democrats tried to implement social reforms (in the areas of co-determination, wealth creation, land rights).

Beatrix takes over the throne

After Queen Julian’s abdication (April 30, 1980), her daughter Beatrix ascended the throne. 1977-94 the CDA was the leading ruling party, temporarily (1982-86), however, replaced by the PvdA as the strongest faction in the Second Chamber. The Lubbers government voted against the resistance of a strong internal and extra-parliamentary opposition 1984 the stationing of 48 American cruise missiles due to the NATO double resolution. The stationing (from 1985) was reversed by the INF Treaty (December 1987). Government-approved cuts in social spending led to repeated protest strikes and a loss of popularity v. a. of the Christian Democrats, who suffered heavy losses in the May 1994 elections. The PvdA, which emerged as the strongest party in the elections despite losses, then formed under W. Kok as Prime Minister, a coalition with the right-wing liberal People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the left-liberal Democrats ’66 (D ’66), both of which had won numerous votes; the CDA was relegated to the opposition for the first time. The Kok government continued the policy of economic reform (the »polder model«), which resulted in a considerable decline in unemployment, and the dismantling of social benefits, as well as the liberal drug policy that had already been pursued. In November 2000 the Second Chamber of the Dutch Parliament passed a controversial law on sanctioning medical euthanasia (confirmed by the First Chamber in April 2001).

After the submission of an investigation report in April 2002 into the massacre in the Bosnian Srebrenica, in which the Dutch government was given political responsibility for the inadequate preparation of the blue helmet soldiers, the coalition cabinet led by W. Kok announced its resignation. On May 6, 2002, the murder of right-wing populist politician Pim Fortuyn (* 1948), who was most recently very successful in regional elections in Rotterdam, was shocking. in Hilversum the Netherlands. The parliamentary elections on May 15, 2002 were won by the CDA, but the second strongest party was the “List Pim Fortuyn” (LPF), followed by the liberal VVD. These three parties then formed a center-right coalition government, the Prime Minister of which was CDA politician J. P. Balkenende. Dispute within the LPF led to the coalition failing quickly. New parliamentary elections on January 22, 2003 confirmed the CDA as the strongest party, closely followed by the PvdA, which was again successful under its top candidate Wouter Bos (* 1963). After coalition talks between the CDA and the PvdA failed in April 2003, Balkenende, who was confirmed in the office of prime minister, formed in May 2003 a new center-right government made up of CDA, VVD and D ’66. The murder of filmmaker Theo van Gogh (* 1957) in November 2004 after a film critical of Islam led to riots against Islamic and Christian institutions and sparked a social discussion about Dutch integration policy.

In 2006 a fundamental reform of health insurance came into force. In the same year the previous governing coalition broke up when the D’66 left and there were early elections in which the CDA was again the strongest party. In 2007, J. P. Balkenende formed a new government made up of CDA, PvdA and the CU. On April 30, 2009, the Dutch national holiday, an attack on the royal family caused great consternation. When a driver tried to ram the royal car, six people died, including the assassin. The members of the royal family were unharmed.

History of Netherlands 4