History of Netherlands Part III

History of Netherlands 3

Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1832

The Kingdom of the Netherlands was now only one of the small European states, but thanks to its rich colonial possessions, its tradition and its culture, it was able to maintain its international political status. Domestic politics has been dominated by the struggle for a constitutional revision since 1815. After a first change in 1840, King Wilhelm II (1840–49) was prepared to make further concessions under the impact of the revolutionary events in France and Germany in 1848. In the constitutional dispute from 1866-68, the parliament set against King Wilhelm III. (1849–90) his constitutional preponderance as well as far-reaching liberal basic positions. The following years were marked by the internal political disputes between liberals and the denominational parties, the Calvinist Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP; A. Kuyper), the Christian-Historical Union (CHU), which split off from it in 1908, and the Catholic electoral associations, to promote denominational schools, social legislation and the introduction of general conscription. The development of the modern industrialized country (construction of electrical and chemical companies, improvement of the infrastructure through the construction of a railway network and the construction of the North Sea Canal) was associated with the emergence of the modern labor movement (1894 establishment of the Social Democratic Workers’ Party, SDAP). For the first time in the history of the country occurred in 1890 after the death of Wilhelm III. the female succession in force, which ended the personal union with Luxembourg. Queen Wilhelmina, until she came of age in 1898 under her mother’s reign, ruled until 1948. The First World War, in which the Netherlands maintained its neutrality, did not interrupt internal development.

Between the world wars

The introduction of universal suffrage for men (1917) and women (1919) and the transition to proportional representation marked the second, far-reaching constitutional reform in the Netherlands after 1815; the parties became the decisive power bearers in the state. While the liberal movement peaked after 1880, the denominational parties, v. a. the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP), founded in 1926, gained considerable political weight in the 20th century; in the period between the world wars, they represented C. J. M. Ruys de Beerenbrouck (RKSP; 1918-25, 1929-33), H. Colijn (ARP; 1925, 1933-39) and D.-J. de Geer (CHU; 1926–29) the Prime Minister. The Social Democrats remained in opposition during this period; the Liberals took part in government from 1933-37. If the Dutch governments followed the principle of the free economy in the 1920s, after the outbreak of the Great Depression (1929) they increasingly had to resort to dirigistic measures. The government tried to counter the crisis with the Agricultural Law (1933), import restrictions and the abolition of the gold standard for the guilder (1936).

In terms of foreign policy, the Netherlands strictly adhered to neutrality between the two world wars. A protracted controversy arose with Belgium over the Dutch Limburg and the Scheldt estuary. The Netherlands joined the League of Nations and welcomed the policy of understanding introduced in Europe with the Locarno Treaty (1925). Since 1933 the expansive foreign policy of National Socialist Germany and its racist ideology worried the Netherlands. In view of the generally worsening crisis in Europe, the de Geer government, which had been formed at the beginning of August 1939 with the participation of the Social Democrats for the first time, announced general mobilization on August 28, 1939. – In their colony of Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands were v. a.

In World War II

Despite joint appeals for peace, Queen Wilhelmina and King Leopold III. From Belgium, according to naturegnosis, Nazi Germany attacked the Netherlands and Belgium on May 10, 1940, in violation of their neutrality. The de Geer royal family and government went to London on May 13th. One day after the heavy bombing of Rotterdam, the Dutch army surrendered on May 15th. In September 1940 P. S. Gerbrandy took over the leadership of the London government in exile (until May 1945). In the Netherlands itself, the German occupying power set up a civil government under Reich Commissioner A. Seyss-Inquart on; Its task was to bring the inner form of the Netherlands into line with the dictatorial-racist system of National Socialist Germany and to exploit the Dutch potential in terms of goods and people in the sense of National Socialist imperial politics. After the parties were banned, only the National Socialist Movement (NSB) remained under A. Mussert exist; The Dutch SS formations were also recruited from their ranks. The persecution of the Jews and the involvement of Dutch citizens in the German armaments industry gave rise to a resistance movement supported by the churches. The first pogroms against the Jewish part of the population took place on 25/26. 2. In 1941 the cause of a general strike by the Amsterdam population, which was later joined by other strike movements in the Netherlands.

In the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 8, 1941), the Dutch government-in-exile declared war on Japan on the same day. In the course of the war, the Japanese forces defeated the Dutch fleet in the Java Sea and occupied the Dutch East Indies. After the collapse of Japan (August 1945), the Netherlands sought to reestablish their rule over the Dutch East Indies, but came into conflict with a local independence movement that proclaimed the independent state of Indonesia in August 1945.

History of Netherlands 3