Guyana, officially english Cooperative Republic of Guyana [kə ʊ ɔ pərət ɪ v r ɪ p ʌ bl ɪ k əv ga ɪ ænə], German Cooperative Republic of Guyana, coastal state in northern South America with (2018) 779 000 residents; The capital is Georgetown.
According to militarynous, Guyana was undisputed British possession from 1816 (Guiana, history). 1831 three British colonies to British Guiana combined (British Guiana). In 1953 a new constitution came into force that introduced universal suffrage and a bicameral system. From the first elections in 1953 Cheddi Jagan (PPP) emerged as Prime Minister (1953, 1957-64). The rapprochement of the Jagan government with Cuba delayed independence. With British and American help, the PNC split from the PPP under Forbes Burnham (* 1923, † 1985) which led to the ethnic polarization of the party system and to acts of violence between Indo- and Afro-Guyanese. The PNC came to government after the introduction of proportional representation in 1964, initially in a coalition government.
In 1966 the colony became independent as a parliamentary monarchy under the name of Guyana. The PNC, ruling alone since 1968, held on to power with increasing election manipulation and violations of human and civil rights, represented the ideology of “cooperative socialism”, made Guyana a “Cooperative Republic” in the Commonwealth in 1970 and dissolved it constitutional ties to the British Crown and the Privy Council. In 1973 Guyana took part in the creation of the Caribbean Community. With the 1980 constitutional amendment, Prime Minister Burnham became President (1980-85). In the office of the president, the functions of head of state and head of government were merged. After Burnham’s death in 1985 Desmond Hoyte (* 1929, † 2002) his successor in state and party. Under international pressure he initiated a policy of liberalization and in 1992 had to allow free and fair elections under international observation. The PPP / C emerged as the winner with 54.6% of the votes; their leader Jagan became the new president. After Jagan’s death in March 1997, Prime Minister Samuel Hinds (* 1943) took over the office. From new elections in December 1997, Janet Jagan (* 1920, † 2009), widow of the late president, emerged victorious. She resigned in August 1999, the previous Finance Minister Bharrat Jagdeo (* 1964) became the new President.confirmed in office by the victory of the PPP / C in the 2001 elections. Despite efforts to mediate by CARICOM and the Commonwealth, the relationship between the two major parties remained characterized by distrust and violent clashes.
The parliamentary elections of August 11, 2006 were won again by the PPP / C with 36 out of 65 seats. With that, Bharrat Jagdeo remained president. In 2011, the PPP / C won the parliamentary elections for the fifth time in a row by winning 32 seats, but failed to achieve an absolute majority. On December 3, 2011, the top candidate for PPP / C, Donald Ramotar (* 1950), was sworn in to succeed Jagdeo as president. This was the first time that the country was ruled by a minority government. Prime Minister remained S. Hinds who had held this office with two brief interruptions since 1992. Since the government did not have the necessary parliamentary majority, the opposition repeatedly succeeded in blocking important political projects and budget planning. In November 2014, President Ramotar, who wanted to prevent a vote of no confidence by the opposition, suspended parliament. In February 2015 the parliament was dissolved and new elections were scheduled for May 11, 2015. These elections led to the end of the rule of the PPP / C after 23 years. The opposition alliance A Partnership for National Unity (APNU), formed around the PNCR, was able to win 33 of the 65 seats in parliament in conjunction with the Alliance for Change (AFC). On May 16, 2015, PNCR leader became D. Granger sworn in as the new president. The office of Prime Minister went to Moses Veerasammy Nagamootoo (* 1947) from the AFC. On March 2nd, 2020, court-ordered, early parliamentary elections took place, in which the APNU was initially declared the winner. International election observers, however, criticized irregularities in the counting of votes. The government and opposition agreed on a new count, at the end of which, after a long delay, the PPP / C received 51% and a parliamentary majority of 33 seats. In August 2020 Mohamed Irfaan Ali (* 1980, PPP / C) was appointed as the new President. He is the first practicing Muslim to serve as president in South America.
In 2015, large amounts of crude oil were discovered in waters partially claimed by Venezuela. They could lead to far-reaching economic and social changes in the country.
The arbitration award of 1899, which determined the border with Venezuela, has not been recognized by Venezuela since 1962, which has since claimed large parts of the territory of Guyana. An agreement was reached in 2007 on the disputed maritime border between Guyana and Suriname. Relations with Venezuela have also improved; For example, in 2010 Guyana received observer status in the economic alliance ALBA initiated by Venezuela. In 2008 Guyana became a founding member of UNASUR.