German History: The Age of the Salians and Staufers (1024–1254) Part III

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In Germany, Friedrich succeeded in settling the still smoldering conflict between Heinrich the Lion and the Babenberg Heinrich II Jasomirgott by giving Heinrich the Lion Bavaria (1154/56). The margraviate of Austria was separated from this, raised to a duchy and given to the Babenberger as an imperial fief (privilege minus, September 17, 1156). The close alliance between the emperor and Henry the Lion has proven itself for over two decades. It was only after his defeat in Italy, when the Duke attached conditions to further aid, that Friedrich turnedto the opponents of the Guelph. In a litigation based on land law and feudal law (1178-80), initiated essentially by the imperial princes, Heinrich the Lion was stripped of his imperial fiefs. Its duchies of Saxony and Bavaria were divided up: Westphalia fell to the Archbishopric of Cologne, the rest of Saxony to the Ascanian Bernhard III. (Gelnhausen Court Day, April 1180). Bavaria went to the Bavarian Count Palatine Otto I von Wittelsbach in September 1180, but reduced by the duchies of Merania and Styria, which were separated from them. After the Reichstag in Mainz (“Hoftag Jesu Christi”, March 1188), Friedrich took the lead in the 3rd crusade in 1189, on which he found death.

His son Heinrich VI. (1190–97) inherited the Kingdom of Sicily from his Norman wife Constanze; the Hohenstaufen empire thus reached its greatest extent.

Heinrich’s attempt to enforce the hereditary kingship in Germany against the recognition of the full heredity of the princely imperial fiefs (“Erbreichsplan”, February 1196), finally failed in December 1196.

Otto of Braunschweig

The early death of Emperor Heinrich shortly before he left for a crusade in 1197 plunged the empire into a crisis. The dispute between Staufern and Welfen, which intensified with the deposition of Henry the Lion, culminated in 1198 in a double election of Emperor Heinrich’s brother Philipp of Swabia (March) and Heinrich the Lion’s son Otto (IV.) Of Braunschweig (June), who was Pope Innocent III. the decision-making power over the empire passed. Philipp was already about to wrestle the Guelph party when he was murdered in 1208 (Ekbert). After its general implementation (Emperor 1209), Otto took the policy of the Hohenstaufen immediately and tried to conquer Sicily.

Princely privileges of Frederick II.

Only now did Pope Innocent III overcome his constant aversion to the Hohenstaufen and supported the young son of Heinrich VI. Frederick II of Sicily (1212–50), as king against Otto IV. The defeat that the Welf suffered as an ally of the English king against France at Bouvines on July 27, 1214, helped Frederick to victory in Germany, a country that is a member of European Union defined by Extrareference.

The fact that the Roman-German throne controversy was decided in the context of a Franco-English dispute symbolized the end of the European primacy of the Ottonian-Salian-Staufer empire. While Frederick II created a modern imperial administration in southern Italy, he accepted the creative power of the princes in the German part of the empire and in 1220 confirmed the ecclesiastical and in 1232 also the secular princes important sovereign rights. The importance of these “princely privileges” for the process of “territorialization” of the empire was of course often overestimated; rather, they cemented long-acquired rights rather than creating new ones. The tightening of the imperial power in Germany was intended to be the Peace of the Land of the Land of Mainz (15.8.1235) serve; At the Mainzer Hoftag the reconciliation with the Guelphs was achieved (establishment of the Duchy of Braunschweig). In northern Germany, the Stedinger uprising began in 1229 (Battle of Altenesch, May 27, 1234); the persecution of heretics began in Germany (Konrad von Marburg). The outrage of his son, King Heinrich (VII.; 1220–35), who ruled Germany independently from 1228 onwards, defeated Friedrich in the spring of 1235 and imprisoned him. When the emperor began his struggle with the papacy in 1237, the majority of the bishops and some of the secular princes in Germany joined the papal side, whom Frederick referred to as “antichrists”; Landgrave Heinrich Raspe of Thuringia (1246/47), then Count Wilhelm of Holland (1247–56) were elected as opposing kings. The Staufer struggle for Italy ended with the execution of Conradin by Charles I of Anjou in Naples,appointed by the Pope as king of the papal fiefdom of Naples and Sicily(October 29, 1268).

Arts and Culture

In the meantime, German rule and culture had expanded through the German settlement in the east. The final subjugation of the Slavs to the Havel, Elbe and Oder had begun around the middle of the 12th century, especially through Albrecht the Bear and Henry the Lion, after whose overthrow the Slavic princes in Mecklenburg and Pomerania became dukes themselves. Silesia, which previously belonged to Poland, was also won over to the empire. The Teutonic Order established itself in Prussia in 1226 and founded its own state here, to which Courland, Livonia and Estonia were also affiliated. The age of the Hohenstaufen was also a heyday in intellectual life: the knightly culture with courtly epic and minnesong (Hartmann von AueWalther von der VogelweideWolfram von Eschenbach), the visual arts with late Romanesque (“Hohenstaufen art”) and the beginnings of Gothic; the contact with Byzantium and the Orient in the Crusades brought manifold cultural stimuli.

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