German colors, the national colors of the German Empire (1870 / 71–1945; black-white-red), the states that followed it (GDR, Federal Republic of Germany) and unified Germany (since 1990; black-red-gold).
Most important state (Reich) or national symbol of the Germans.
The Holy Roman Empire (until 1806) could not develop any national colors because the prerequisite for state unity was lacking. The imperial colors (from the Hohenstaufen dynasty, 12th century; imperial eagle) were black gold, which continued to exist with the imperial dignity in Austria until 1918. Red has been a symbol of rule over life and death since the time of Charlemagne; Since the 14th century the imperial eagle has appeared with red tinged fangs and beak. The history of (today’s) German colors is closely linked to the history of German unification, its crises and high points.
Emergence: By T. grains was the black uniform of the Lützower hunters become popular, was composed of (black) recolored trimmed with red piping and gold buttons civilian skirts. After the Wars of Liberation (1813-15) the fraternities in which v. a. in Jena many Lützowers were still wearing their tunics as federal clothing; this gave rise to their federal colors, red and black interwoven with gold, as well as their flag. Against the widespread tendency, the Prussian colors of Marshal BlücherTo choose (black and white), the Jena fraternity put through its own costume and color at the Wartburg Festival on October 18, 1817. The erroneous view that black, red and gold (after the imperial eagle) were the colors of the Holy Roman Empire also had an effect here. After the Karlovy Vary resolutions (1819), the »color song« – »We had built a stately house« – by August Daniel von Binzer (* 1793, † 1868) resulted in the sequence black-red-gold; at the Hambach Festival (May 27, 1832) no one doubted that these were the German colors. The Bundestag of the German Confederation (1815–66) in Frankfurt am Main on July 5, 1832 banned the wearing of all cockades in colors other than the colors of the federal states, but on March 9, 1848 declared the black, red and gold colors as the (alleged) old Spanish Spaniard to federal colors; the Frankfurt National Assembly even passed a flag law (November 13, 1848). The enthusiasm with which all the troops of the Federal Princes and Free Cities donned the black, red and gold cockade, especially in March and summer 1848, subsided; On August 15, 1852, the German Confederation – although formally valid until 1866 – put it down again, but the “tricolor” (“three-color”) lived on in popular consciousness as the German colors.
The North German Confederation (1867-70 / 71) was symbolized by a new black-white-red tricolor derived from the colors of Prussia (black and white) as well as Brandenburg and the Hanseatic cities (white and red) (Article 5 of the Federal Constitution of 25. 6. 1867), which was transferred to the newly founded German Empire in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71. These “imperial colors” were declared the national flag in 1892 and put on as a second cockade by the troops of all federal contingents in 1897. During the First World War (1914-18) they gained widespread recognition among the German people. In Austria-Hungary (1867–1918) the Germans continued to regard black, red and gold as German colors.
Weimar Republic: In November 1918, black, red and gold became the symbol of the republic. After a violent flag dispute on February 18, 1919, the Weimar National Assembly was ready to reach a politically momentous compromise in favor of the opponents of the republic: the imperial and national colors of the republic should be black, red and gold (proclaimed on July 3, 1919), the trade and war flags but black-white-red with the imperial colors as a jack in the upper corner (January 1, 1922– March 12, 1933; flag issue).
The Nazis used the black-white-red flag 1933-35, then black, white and red were just as Reich colors (for cockades, barriers, sentry boxes and a..) Used; the swastika flag (party flag) became the sole national flag in 1935.
After 1945, various authorities displayed black, red and gold colors (e.g. the cockades of the police), which the Allied Control Council banned again on June 14, 1945 as a symbol of German statehood. The signal flag C (Stander) served as a flag replacement on German ships until 1950. The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD) in the Soviet Zone led black-red-gold for a long time until the German People’s Council on May 18, 1948/30. 5. In 1949 designated these colors as the “old German colors” and adopted them as national colors for a future “German democratic republic”; from then on they were also in the later GDR (1949–90) in force and were carried in their national flag, from October 1, 1959 with the national coat of arms of the GDR (Hammer-Zirkel-Ährenkranz; constitutional rank only from 1968). In the run-up to the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Parliamentary Council adopted the German colors for the federal flag on May 8, 1949 (Section 22 of the Basic Law; promulgated on May 23, 1949). With the accession of the GDR to the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with Article 23 (October 3, 1990), the state symbols of the Federal Republic of Germany became valid throughout the Federal Republic of Germany, a country that belongs to European Union according to Aceinland. – The states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Lower Saxony (as well as the state of Württemberg-Baden, which existed until 1952), as well as Saarland (1957), also chose the German colors as state colors.
German central administrations
German central administrations, German administrative bodies formed in the Soviet Zone of Occupation (SBZ) on the orders of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) on July 27, 1945; the first 11, later 16 German central administrations coordinated – without authority – the administrative activities of the countries of the Soviet occupation zone in certain areas (e.g. industry, agriculture, trade and supply, transport). With the exception of the central administrations for public education, justice and home affairs, the German central administrations became the main administrations of the German Economic Commission in March 1948.
German Economic Commission
German Economic Commission, abbreviation DWK, 1947–49 the central German administrative body in the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, based in Berlin (East), formed on June 14, 1947 on the orders of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD), initially coordinated the work of the » German central administrations «, advised the SMAD and ensured the reparations to the USSR. After establishing the office of permanent chairman (Heinrich Rau [* 1899, † 1961], SED; deputy Bruno Leuschner [* 1910, † 1965] and Fritz Selbmann [* 1899, † 1975], both SED) and incorporation of most of the German central administrations as main administrations (HV) from March 9, 1948, the SMAD constantly expanded the responsibilities of the DWK as well as its workforce and finally gave it the functions of a government. After October 7, 1949, the DWK became part of the Provisional Government of the GDR.