Dutch Painting and Graphics

Dutch Painting and Graphics

Painting in the first half of the 16th century was initially influenced by Antwerp Mannerism, which was quickly replaced by so-called Romanism. Romanism, which was increasingly widespread through the artists’ trips to Italy and Italian printmaking, manifested itself in particular in the appropriation and transfer of Italian forms and motifs, which were often associated with local traditions (e.g. landscape painting). This development began with the Mecheln court painter J. Gossaert, known as Mabuse, who introduced life-size mythological nudes (Neptune and Amphitrite, 1516, Berlin, Gemäldegalerie) to Dutch art, and J. van Scorel , who worked in Utrecht who founded the Dutch group portrait (Jerusalem Driver, 1528, Haarlem, Frans-Hals-Museum). Important masters in the south were Q. Massys , B. van Orley , his pupils M. van Coxcie , as well as P. Coecke van Aelst and F. Floris , in the north L. van Leyden and C. Engebrechtsz. , J. Cornelisz. and M. van Heemskerck. In addition to history and portrait painting (A. Mor, P. J. Pourbus), other genres emerged: genre painting (JS van Hemessen ), market and kitchen items that preceded the still lifes (P. Aertsen , J. Beuckelaer ), landscape painting (J. Patinir ). The work of P. Bruegel the Elder, which was supported by his sons (P. Bruegel the Younger , J. Bruegel the Elder ) and grandsons (J. Bruegel the Younger ) and grandchildren (J. Bruegel the Younger ) and grandsons (J. Bruegel the Younger ) and grandsons (J. Bruegel the Younger ), had an outstanding effect on the development of landscape and (peasant) genre painting) continued into the 17th century. In addition to cabinet painting (O. van Veen ), large-format altar paintings (M. de Vos ) continued to be characteristic of Flemish painting. In the 16th century, numerous Dutch painters worked at European courts: P. Bril in Rome, Jan van der Straet (* 1523, † 1605) in Florence, L. Sustris in Venice, P. Candid andF. Sustris in Munich and B. Spranger in Prague.

According to ethnicityology, the political division into northern (Protestant) and southern (Catholic) Netherlands made itself felt from the late 16th century; numerous Protestant artists emigrated to the north after 1585, which experienced a considerable boom.

Still committed to Italian and Prague Mannerism, H. Goltzius , C. Cornelisz. and C. van Mander (author of “Het schilder-boeck”, 1604, the first Dutch collection of artists’ works, and also an important treatise on art theory) founded an academy in Haarlem in 1583. From around 1600 a new history painting developed in Dutch painting, trained by A. Elsheimer and Caravaggio (P. Lastman, A. C. Bloemaert, H. Terbrugghen and G. H. van Honthorst (Utrecht School). Independent pictorial genres were established and increasingly differentiated: banquet still lifes (P. Claesz, W. Kalf, W. C. Heda), floral still lifes (J. D. de Heem), kitchen and market items, genre painting and social items (J. Steen, G. Metsu, G. Terborch, P. de Hooch, outstanding J. Vermeer), architectural painting (P. J. Saenredam, E. de Witte), landscape painting (J. van Goyen, J. van Ruisdael , E. van de Velde, A. Cuyp , A. van der Neer ), Marine painting (J. Porcellis, J. van de Cappelle, Simon de Vlieger ) and portraiture (MJ van Miereveld , B. van der Helst , especially F. Hals ). Group portraits (marksmen and regents as well as anatomies) were characteristic of Dutch painting of the time. What all genres have in common is a high level of reality, often paired with symbolic references and imaginative decorations (interiors). In research it is still controversial to this day how strongly the moral and symbolic content (especially of still lifes and genre pictures, but also of landscapes) was perceived by contemporaries.

Dutch Painting and Graphics

Rembrandt’s work was of European standing; he stands out as a painter, draftsman and etcher and was a school educator (G. Flinck, F. Bol, C. Fabritius and A. de Gelder), his influence extended well into the 18th century, v. a. in Northern Europe. Rembrandt’s early work was influenced by P. Lastman and was the result of a discussion with J. Lievens from Leiden. His internalized image conception, which v. a. in religious subjects and portraits showed his few landscapes and his characteristic light and color scheme in his late work; The high number of self-portraits is also striking. Rembrandt’s first pupil, G. Dou , was the main master of the Leiden fine painters who were still active into the 18th century (F. van Mieris the Elder , W. van Mieris ). Other important painters of the 18th century were the fine painter A. van der Werff, Gerard Hoet (* 1648, † 1733), the still life painters J. van Huysum and R. Ruysch , the portrait painters C. Troost and J. de Wit.

Of paramount importance for Flemish painting and European impact was also the work of P. P. Rubens, who after his return from Italy (1600-08) built a large workshop in Antwerp, in which also animal (F. Snijders ), landscape and Still life painter (J. Bruegel the Elder) participated. He also had his works reproduced by selected engravers and in this way achieved an enormous distribution of his sensual and highly dramatic compositions, which were trained on Italian models. In addition to altarpieces and numerous mythological paintings, PP Rubens created Portraits and, in his later work, landscape paintings. Diplomatic trips took the learned painter to Italy, England and Spain, where he was also always active as an artist. His student A. van Dyck became the most important portrait painter of his time (active in Antwerp, Italy and England); Under the influence of PP Rubens, J. Jordaens created society pieces, pictures with religious and mythological content, as well as portraits. Characteristic of the Flemish School in small format are the cabinet picture (F. Francken the Younger , Willem van Haecht, * 1593, † 1637), peasant genre pictures (A. Brouwer) and social pieces (D. Teniers the Younger). In addition to PP Rubens’ work, which remained formative for Flemish painting into the 18th century, French influences also gained importance from the 1660s.

In the field of glass painting, the brothers Dirck († 1574) and Wouter Crabeth († 1589) were convincing; Her preserved works include, among others. the stained glass in the Sint-Janskerk in Gouda (1555–62). Cabinet panes with profane scenes created, among other things. D. Vellert .

Significant representatives of the Dutch prints of the 16th and 17th centuries, which were important for European development, were L. van Leyden, M. van Heemskerck and H. Goltzius, for architectural and ornamental engravings F. Floris and H. Vredeman de Vries ; in addition, a flourishing reproduction graphic based on the works of Dutch and Italian masters developed. Dutch book illustrations (Bible, writings by ancient authors) were of the greatest thematic and motivic diversity up to the 18th century and had a considerable effect on the visual arts. In the 17th century Amsterdam was an international center of the book trade. The etchings of Rembrandt, who, like HP Seghers , also used this technique experimentally, also acquired special significance.