Dutch music, term for music in the area of today’s Netherlands since independence in 1581 (proclamation) and 1648 (official recognition).
On the history of Dutch music in the 15th and 16th centuries Franco-Flemish music.
The development of Dutch music is inextricably linked with historical events. With the Reformation on the one hand and the 80-year struggle for freedom (1568–1648) on the other, the country split at the end of the 16th century into a Calvinist northern part (1587–1795 Republic of the United Netherlands; Union of Utrecht) and a Catholic southern part (including Belgium and temporarily also Luxembourg; 1581–1713 Spanish Netherlands, 1713–1795 Austrian Netherlands), which in each case developed an individual musical culture in the following centuries, before the current state emerged with the establishment of the »Kingdom of the Netherlands« in 1830.
Music in the Republic of the United Netherlands
The organists played an elementary role in music history in the 17th century. Some of them worked as interpreters, composers, conductors and teachers in personal union. The most important of them was JP Sweelinck , who was still influenced by the Fanko-Flemish style, who as an organ virtuoso wrote numerous variations for keyboard instruments and shaped the North German organ school around S. Scheidt as well as for Dutch composers such as Anthoni van Noordt (* around 1619, † 1675) was. In addition to the organists, town pipers and, above all, bell players such as Jacob van Eyck (* around 1590, † 1657) important cultural carriers of public musical life. The glockenspiel tradition flourished, not least through the work of the brothers François (* 1609, † 1667) and Pieter (* 1619, † 1680) Hemony, who made chromatically tuned bells in their workshop for the first time.
At the same time, a diverse musical culture developed in churches, aristocratic houses, theaters, concert halls and universities in the 17th and 18th centuries, and above all as house music in the Collegii musici, which, however, continued to absorb foreign influences for a long time and attracted numerous musicians from abroad. In the opera with works by J.-B. Lully the French influence, in Amsterdam Conrad Friedrich Hurlebusch (* 1691, † 1765) from Germany and P. Locatelli from Italy worked. In addition to The Hague and Rotterdam, the city was also a regular venue for guest performances by great musicians such as WA Mozart , JCF Bach and JC Bach , GF Handel , C. Stamitz or L. van Beethoven . Important local musicians of this time were C. Huygens , who created an extensive (lost) instrumental work for lute, viol and guitar, as well as Adrianus Valerius (* around 1575, † 1625), whose “Old Dutch Thanksgiving Prayer” is still part of the great in Germany today Zapfenstreich forms.
Music in the Spanish Netherlands
In addition to the legacy of the Franco-Flemish school and its last important representative O. di Lasso , foreign influences initially shaped musical life. The London-born Peter Philips (* 1560/61, † 1628) worked as a composer of motets, madrigals and piano music, while the Italian Giuseppe Zamponi (* around 1600/1610, † 1662) with »Ulisse nell’isola da Circe« Made his first contribution to the history of Dutch opera in 1650. The work of W. de Fesch shows English and Italian stylistic elements, who in addition to oratorios and concerts as well as Jean-Baptiste Loeillet de Gant (* 1688, † 1720) mainly created chamber music. Overall, however, the cultivation of church music during this period was severely restricted by Calvinism throughout the Netherlands.
According to homosociety, the cultural center at the beginning of the 18th century was Brussels, where Archduchess Maria Elisabeth (* 1686, † 1746) promoted musical life as governor of the Netherlands and where the Théâtre de la Monnaie, which still exists today, was opened in 1700. The Italian – born Jean-Joseph Fiocco (* 1686, † 1746) also worked here, who wrote oratorios for the court. Wrote church music in the Italian style. In the 18th century, instrumental music gained increasing importance, taking on Italian as well as French influences such as Josse Boutmy (* 1697, † 1779), Jean-Jacques Robson (* 1723, † 1785) and Pierre van Maldere (* 1729, † 1768) whose symphonies are considered to be the pioneers of classical music. In addition, starting in Antwerp, the “cantiones natalitiae” established themselves as specifically Dutch Christmas music from the early 17th century, initially in Latin and from 1629 also in Flemish. Musical emancipation also began in opera. B. with Carolus Hacquart (* around 1640, † after 1700), who created the first stage work in Dutch in 1678, and with Jean-Noël Hamal (* 1709, † 1778), who composed operas in Walloon language.
Political and cultural emancipation
With the occupation of both parts of the country by French troops (1795), French influence initially increased for two decades. B. by AEM Grétry , who came from Liège but worked in Paris, whose operas also dominated the Dutch stages. At the same time, (classical) German stylistic elements increasingly found their way into the orchestral works, for example with Johann Wilhelm Wilms (* 1772, † 1847), who created the national anthem, which was valid until 1932, with “Wien Neêrlands bloed”. In the second half of the 19th century and around the turn of the century, (late) romantic and impressionist influences found their way into the works, among others. by A. Diepenbrock , J. Wagenaar, H. Andriessen and Johannes Josephus Hermanus Verhulst (* 1816, † 1891). In addition, the composers Carolus Antonius Fodor (* 1768, † 1846) and Richard Hol (* 1825, † 1904), who created important choral works in Dutch, who worked in Amsterdam, gave important impulses for the development of an independent musical life through their conducting and educational work. The pioneer of niederländicshen national music were Bernard Zweers (* 1854, † 1924) and Cornelis Dopper (* 1870, † 1939), whose (programmat.) For orchestral works. Partly rooted in Dutch folk music.