Bulgaria Rivers and Lakes

An essentially continental country, Bulgaria does not look to the sea except to E., on the short Euxine coast (311 km.), High, not very articulated, where even more restricted is the space marked by nature to the possibility of creating ports (Varua, Burgaz).

The orography of the town and its narrow outline did not allow the formation of long and navigable rivers; the scarcity of precipitations, the lack of glaciers and persistent snows give reason for their relative poverty of water, while, originating from fairly high reliefs, the slope is almost always considerable. Furthermore, the morphogenetic conditions often determine a regime that could be said to be rather torrential.

The rivers that flow into the Black Sea have a short and irregular course, valleys in several places that are marshy and covered with woods. With a basin of 5147 sq km, the Kamčija, which is 244 km long, divides the Balkans from the Danube plateau (average slope: 3, 1 ‰, 0,65% in the final stretch); to the north of this flows the Provadiisko Dere (km. 121; basin kmq. 2411), which before Varna widens into the Devnensko Jezero, genetically analogous to the cryptodepressions that border the Black Sea coast west of Burgaz.

Of the rivers that go to the Danube, only the Iskăr cuts the Balkans, carrying one of its spring branches to the reverse of the Rila. 400 km long. (basin 4304 sq. km.), crosses the Samokov basin (160 sq. km.) and that of Sofia (1000 sq. km.; length 75 km, average width 15.8, height 500 m.), in which it once formed a lake, opening the passage to N. by means of a picturesque gorge, followed by the Sofia-Plevna railway. Iskăr is fed by the copious toll of western Bulgarian waters; it is believed that it was sailed in Roman times. With a shorter length (271 km.), But almost double basin (7846 sq. Km.), The Jantra collects the waters of most of the Middle and Eastern Balkans. Much less notable are the Osăm (265 km.), The Černi Lom (238), the Vit (195), the Ogosta (147) and the Lom (93): all characterized by inconstant flow, steep slope of the bed (from 4.8% in Jantra to 10.8% in Ogosta), except in the terminal section, and low average flow rate. Their demographic importance, on the other hand, is great, marking not only the natural ways of communication between N. and S., but also more suitable places, because they are more humid, for human settlement.

Of the Struma and Mesta, only the upper course belongs to Bulgaria, in which one and the other run between rugged and long ravines, which separate more or less wide mountain basins. Descended from the high slopes of Vitosha, the Struma (392 km.) Subsequently crosses the basins of Peruik (2 km. Long), Radomir (259 kmq., Length 34 km., Average width 7 km., Average height 600 m..), and of Kjustendil (140 sq km, length 21 km, average width 6.7 km, average height 500 m.), to stretch out, to S. di Boboševo, in a wide and fertile valley, which closes in Kresna. Here the river opens its pass through a gorge that divides the Maleš group or the Pirin, continuing to the confluence with the Strumica, beyond which it enters Greek territory.

The Mesta valley (226 km.), Called Karasu (black water) by the Turks, divides the Pirin from the western Rodope, from which it collects the tribute. It is formed by the white Mesta and the black Mesta, of which the second collects the waters in the alpine lakes of the Rila. Joining the two branches, the Mesta crosses the Razlog basin, and then sinks into the rough furrow of the Momina Klisura (in Turkish Kyz derbend “gorge of the girls”), about thirty kilometers long, followed by the Nevrokop basin (length 15 km., Width 5 km., Average height 350 m.) And then a second gorge, where the river foams between rapids or waterfalls. For Bulgaria geography, please check franciscogardening.com.

Unlike the Mesta, which due to the conditions of its course has little anthropogeographical importance, the Struma represents the shortest way of communication between middle Bulgaria and the sea – followed by the railway that leads to the Greek border – and runs through one of the densest regions. populated throughout the country. Despite their height, mountain basins offer the residents large resources (agriculture), and they will offer more when the riches of the subsoil and water energy are conveniently exploited.

Leaving aside the Danube, the most important of the Bulgarian rivers is the Marizza (km.440), which also ends across the border, but lends itself, even in its middle course (downstream of Pazardžik), to navigation, a time used for the transport of cereals and goods. Its slight slope (1 ‰), the copy of the waters, the fertility and richness (mines) of the territories it crosses, its very position in the heart of the kingdom explain why its basin is among the most densely populated areas of the whole Bulgaria. With a length slightly greater than that of the Adige, it conveys the waters of a territory that is more than three times larger (54,000 km), and in any case roughly half the size of the kingdom’s surface. Coming down from the Rila, the Marizza crosses the fat plain of Plovdiv, leaning on the side facing the Rodope, and dividing, with slow and copious outflow, into several branches, to descend, beyond the heights of Čirpan, towards Haskovo and Adrianople, where its major tributaries reach it. Of these, the richest in water and the most regular descend from the right, from the wooded slopes of the Rodope, where they are fed by a provident reserve of snow; the others have a more variable flow without comparison, a greater load of floods, an unstable and often suspended bed, and run, in the last stretch of their riverbed, parallel to the Marizza, gradually moving their mouths towards the E. Of the former, the most important is the Arda (310 km.), A true mountain river (it runs deeply embedded, without interrupting shelves or basins), rich in water, but of little importance as a means of communication; of seconds the Struma (114 km.

397 km stretch along the Danube. border: the high and steep edge of the Bulgarian bank contrasts with the flat selvedge of marshes that borders the opposite bank, although also on the right of the river at that edge (which marks the edge of the fracture line traced by the Danube) wider swampy lowlands, which represent ancient beds or expansions of the waters. Of the numerous river islands (about a hundred), located in front of this border section, half belong to Bulgaria: the largest (Kozlodui, 600 ha.) Are used as pastures.

Bulgaria is very poor in lakes, except for the mountainous ones, numerous but tiny (Rila, Pirin, Rodope) and the limans, which along the banks of Mount Nero mark the outlet to the sea of ​​the major rivers (near Varna and Burgaz). Of this the largest is the aforementioned Devnensko Jezero (Devna Lake), which covers an area of ​​18.9 sq km. (a little larger, therefore, than our Lake Orta, less than half of that of Salpi, which is of the same origin), with a maximum depth of 20.4 m., average of 9.7 m., and a perimeter of 33.4 km. It is 1.8 msm high; the bottom, therefore, is at 18.6 m. below this same level.

Bulgaria Rivers