Argentina Arts and Music

Argentina Arts

ART AND ARCHITECTURE

From the colonial period there are few pictorial and sculptural testimonies, works generally created by Spanish, Portuguese or Italian artists. Local painters of some importance, in the service of the Jesuits, were L. Berger, author of the Virgin of Miracles (1636) of the church of the Company in Santa Fe, and JB Daniel who decorated (1645-71) the church of the Company of Córdoba. In the 18th century. in Buenos Aires, among the Spanish artists, J. de Salas was noteworthy and AM Camponeschi was very famous among the Italians. In the field of sculpture, retables (Buenos Aires, churches of S. Ignacio and de La Merced) and pulpits (cathedral of Jujuy, 1680-1720) were a rich complement of architecture. In the 19th century. P. Paz Pueyrredón (1823-71) is the first figure of national interest with his paintings of figures and landscapes. Notable after him are E. de la Cárcova (1867-1927), author of paintings of social inspiration; E. Sívori (1847-1918); MA Malharro (1868-1911), follower of Impressionism. In 1896 the National Museum of Buenos Aires was founded and later various schools of fine arts, provincial museums, movements that participated in the most significant researches of the 20th century arose: central figures of the Argentine avant-garde were the painter E. Pettoruti and the sculptor R. Yrurtia; since 1945, the Asociación de Arte Concreto Invención began a lively debate, placing the emphasis on non-figurative research (T. Maldonado, G. Kosice, E. Iommi); of great stimulus was the presence of L. Fontana, signatory with a group of his students of the Manifesto Blanco (1946). Several artists subsequently gained international attention, including Argentina Penalba, M. Boto, J. Le Parc. In the figurative field, the need for a socially conscious and indigenous art found in Argentina Berni original expression, as well as in the sculptor G. Argelés (b. 1940). For the researches of the last decades of the 20th century, the conceptual D. Lamelas (b.1946), J. Macchi (b.1963) who creates complex and ambiguous semantic networks, L. Erlich (b.1973) which, with installations and videos, plays on perceptual illusion.

According to Topmbadirectory, in the field of architecture, the first houses in Buenos Aires, made of beaten earth and tree trunks with thatched roof (16th-17th century), which served as a model for the typical Argentine rancho, were later replaced by buildings in brick modeled on the type of the Spanish house, usually single-storey, with a roof of tiles and a facade with an elevated central section terminated by a crowning decorated with various motifs. In the northern provinces there was often a portico on the ground floor: the most characteristic example is the Palazzo del Cabildo in Buenos Aires (1711; currently transformed). Among the most notable sacred buildings, in addition to the cathedral of Buenos Aires, that of Córdoba (18th century) should be remembered. In the second half of the eighteenth century Buenos Aires began to lose the appearance of a colonial city, especially thanks to the Italian builders who introduced a type of classical architecture, while some cities in the province (Salta, Córdoba, etc.) retained their ancient character. Only in 1830 did two-storey houses appear, in which the tiled roof was replaced by terraces. From 1880 onwards an eclectic style of European inspiration spread, alongside which a current inspired by the Spanish-American traditions remained. Under the influence of Le Corbusier Argentine architecture abandoned the old classicist schemes to open up to original initiatives, both on the urbanistic side (the master plan of the capital, designed by Le Corbusier himself, generated numerous imitations in other cities) and on the architectural one (Auditorium di Buenos Aires, of E. Catalano, 1947; campus of the University of Tucumán, by E. Sacriste, Argentina Vivanco, H. Comino, 1948-49). Notable architects were Argentina Williams, MR Álvarez, L. Aisemberg, J. Rey Pastor, C. Cavari, EC Castillo, E. Katzenstein, E. Kokurek. Among the most representative figures of Argentine and Latin American architecture in general of the last decades, that of C. Testa stands out; also worthy of mention are the studies Mario Roberto Álvarez y Asociados and ArX Arquitectura. The International Architecture Biennale has been held in Buenos Aires since 1985.

MUSIC

If already in the 19th century. A widespread interest in music was not lacking in the 20th century. the tendency to form a school on a national level began to manifest itself. Important for this purpose was the establishment of the Sociedad Nacional de Música (1915), aimed precisely at spreading the works of Argentine composers. These have generally turned to Criollo or Incaic folklore ; some, however, preferred to move towards the European schools. The greatest sympathies go not to opera but to instrumental music, and in this last field there were in fact the best affirmations with Argentina Williams (symphonist), Argentina Berutti, C. Gaito, Argentina Faleni of Italian style; then C. López Buchardo, composer of vocal and symphonic music first in French style, then national and folkloric; J. Aguirre, the best of folklore; the French artists R. Rodríguez, C. Piaggio, I. André, FM Ugarte and the nationals P. de Rogatis, C. Stiattesi, Argentina Schiuma (all dedicated to both theater and instrumental music); R. Espoile and F. Boero (also opera and instrumentalists). Among the contemporaries we should mention G. Troiani, instrumentalist; Argentina Luzzatti, opera and symphonist; E. Fracassi, opera player; Argentina Ginastera, instrumentalist.

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

Los Glaciares (1981); Jesuit missions of the Guaraní (1983, 1984); Iguazu National Park (1984); Cueva de las Manos and Río Pinturas (1999); Valdés Peninsula (1999); Natural parks of Ischigualasto – Talampaya (2000); Jesuit Quarter and Estancias of Córdoba (2000); Quebrada de Humahuaca (2003).

Argentina Arts