Adelaide [ ædəle ɪ d], capital of the Australian state of South Australia, 9 km at the Torrens River (Saint-Vincent-Golf), from the sea; (2018) 1.3 million residents (metropolitan area), that is 76.3% of the population of South Australia.
Catholic archbishopric, Anglican bishopric. Adelaide is a cultural center, including with three universities (founded in 1874, 1966 and 1991), conservatory, state library, art galleries, immigrant museum and the “Adelaide Festival Center”; most important industrial location of the state, defense industry, mechanical engineering, metal processing, electrical and food industry, brewery, wineries; Transport hub with international airport, terminus of the 3,014 km long Stuart Highway and the 2,979 km long railway line from Darwin (north-south transcontinental railroad “The Ghan”); in the north-west of Adelaide the port of Port Adelaide, in the south the oil port of Stanvac.
Cityscape: The city is generously laid out in a chessboard layout and surrounded by parks; the North Terrace in the center is the most representative street (parliament building). The satellite town of Elizabeth was included in the north in 1955, and the slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges are now also populated; There are suburbs along the coast (seaside resorts).
History: Adelaide was founded in 1836 by Major W. Light and named after Queen Adelaide, wife of the then British King William IV; Adelaide was the first Australian city to have its own local government in 1840.
| Tasmani en, English Tasmania [Taez me ɪ njə], State of Australia, includes the island of Tasmania (64,880 km 2 (u. A King Iceland and the Furneauxgruppe.)) And some surrounding islands, 68,018 km 2, (2017) 520900 Residents, including 23 600 Aborigines. The population is predominantly of British origin (indigenous Tasmanians). Only the coastal areas are more densely populated, especially in the southeast (around Hobart), along the north coast and around Launceston. The capital is Hobart.
National nature: The island of Tasmania, separated from the Australian continent by the Bass Strait, is mountainous (in Mount Ossa up to 1,617 m above sea level) and shows numerous glacial forms (including lakes); there are extensive lowlands only on the coasts, especially in the north (on the Tamar River also in the interior). Located in the area of the cool, temperate west wind zone, Tasmania receives year-round precipitation, in the west of the island 1,200 to 2,400 mm (in mountainous regions up to over 3,000 mm), in the east, however, 500–1,200 mm. Temperatures in January average between 10 ° C and 20 ° C, in July between 0 ° C and 10 ° C. According to the precipitation, eucalyptus forests predominate in the east and temperate rainforests in the west (also in the mountains in the northeast), in the southwest Tussockgrasmoore. Visit nexticle.net for Australia travel package.
Business: Agriculture is mainly practiced in the east and in the coastal lowlands. The livestock industry provides meat, cheese, butter and wool. Among the crops (especially in the northern lowlands and in the southeast), fruit (especially apples) is the most important; potatoes, vegetables and fodder plants are also produced. The extraction of wood (especially eucalyptus) is important, also for the Tasmanian industry (paper, plywood and veneer). Gold and silver-bearing copper ores, lead and zinc ores on the west coast (e.g. near Rosebery), iron ores from the Savage River, tungsten ores on King Island, tin ores in the west and north, and coal in the east are extracted from the mineral resources. The metallurgical industry also processes ores from the mainland, particularly the zinc smelter in Risdon near Hobart and the aluminum smelter in Bell Bay on the Tamar River. Shipbuilding and fishing are other important industries. The energy supply is mainly provided by hydropower plants. Hobart and the north coast cities are supplied with natural gas from the Bass Strait. Important tourist destinations are Port Arthur (1830–70 prison settlement), the sandy beaches on the east coast and the 14 national parks (including the Cradle Mountain-Lake Saint Clair National Park) and other nature reserves (a total of 14,000 km2, about 20% of the island’s area), four of which are natural landscapes in Western Tasmania that are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
History: Tasmania was discovered on November 24, 1642 by A. J. Tasman on behalf of the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies, Anthony van Diemen (* 1593, † 1645), and was initially called Van Diemen’s Land. In 1798 G. Bass recognized Tasmania as an island. Sheep farmers have settled here since 1803. Penal colonies were established from New South Wales, to which Tasmania belonged until 1825; after the deportations ceased (1853), the island was renamed Tasmania. On January 1, 1901, Tasmania joined the Australian Confederation.