List of U.S. Newspapers
|Home > United States|
United States Mass Media
In many ways, the United States is a pioneer in mass media, both
journalistic and technical. Also, no other country has the same
worldwide dominance in terms of entertainment and news reporting, an
influence that has steadily increased as globalization and the
spread of the Internet.
At the same time, the American media landscape has undergone major changes from 2000 onwards. Foremost is the new technology in the IT sector that has changed consumption patterns and prevailing business models.
TV has long been the most popular medium, but in 2014, Americans spend more time on the Internet than in front of the TV. But the boundaries between the media are dissolved as both TV and radio channels are available via computer, tablet or smart phone.
Internet and mobile telephony
Over 80% of US households have access to the Internet via fixed or mobile broadband. Mobile surfing is increasing rapidly as the 3G network and later the 4G network are expanded.
Four mobile operators dominate the market: the US companies Verizon, AT&T and Sprint and German T-Mobile. 4G coverage is very good in densely populated areas (80%, 2016) and over 60% of the population owns a smart mobile (2014).
The top list of the 20 most visited sites is completely dominated by companies that started after the breakthrough of the Internet, such as Google, Facebook and Yahoo. The only traditional media company on the list is the TV company CNN. Here, the United States differs from most other developed countries, where at least any newspaper or TV channel has a dominant position. It also shows how difficult the older media companies have to change to new business models. In their eagerness to protect their old sources of revenue - for example, advertising-financed TVs, CDs, daily newspaper advertisements, subscribed newspapers - they have not changed in time and instead got to see new players take all or part of the cake.
TV and radio
The TV market has long been dominated by three major networks: American Broadcasting Company (ABC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) and National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Cable and satellite TV have drastically reduced their dominance, e.g. they have lost more than half of their viewers since 1980 when it comes to news broadcasts. There, the cable channel dominates Fox News, owned by media mogul Rupert Murdoch. Fox News has often been criticized for being subjective with a clear right profile.
The supply of cable TV is huge, with not only commercial but also a large number of channels with political or religious orientation. Many of the non-commercial TV channels are linked to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), which is federally funded and has more than 350 stations in its network. Quantitatively, PBS plays a relatively modest role, but it is of opinion significance because many of its programs hold high quality.
Nearly 90% of US households have access to cable or satellite TV (2012). Experiments with television began in the 1920s, but commercial regular broadcasts came only after the Second World War. There are about 10,000 commercial radio stations and a number of non-commercial stations, many of which are connected to the network NPR (formerly National Public Radio). In terms of content, NPR's stations differ from most commercial channels. There is serious music and commentary programs, but also entertainment. NPR is financed with fees from the member stations as well as through sponsorship and listener collections.
Satellite radio has become very popular in recent years, mainly by car. The company Sirius XM Radio has a monopoly on the technology, which was launched in 2001. To receive the broadcasts, a special receiver is required, and in many car models one is included in the standard equipment. Almost all channels that are broadcast by satellite are advertising-free and are financed with a monthly fee. In 2014, more than 25 million Americans were subscribers to the service.
Listening to radio via the internet is also steadily increasing and most stations have operations on the web as well. In addition, there is a large selection of channels that are exclusively distributed via the Internet.
Radio in the United States began to develop during the First World War. Regular news broadcasts began in 1920. The radio stations were usually financed with advertising and were locally based. Competition in the ether in 1927 forced legislation (the Radio Act) which, through licensing, prevented the transmitters from disturbing each other.
The radio media also plays an important role for US information operations abroad. State-controlled Voice of America has stations in several countries and was important not least for the news distribution to the former eastern states of Europe.
Magazines and magazines
In addition to the daily press, magazines play a major role in the American media system. There are thousands of magazines tailored to almost every area of interest. The largest is Better Homes and Gardens with just over 7 million items. (2012). Among news-oriented magazines with high circulation and public opinion, mention is Time (3.2 million copies) and Newsweek (1.5 million copies).
In many ways, the industry has the same problems as the daily press - declining circulation and declining advertising revenue. At the same time, optimism is greater in terms of revenue after conversion to tablets and smartphones, and more magazines were launched in 2011 than were closed down. But new forms of distribution require large investments in both new technology and the development of competence.
Book and publishing system
Book industry today
Since the beginning of the 2000s, the industry has undergone a change that has largely been driven by new technology and changed consumption patterns. At the same time, the trend of internationalization, acquisitions and mergers has continued, culminating in 2013 when the British Penguin merged with Random House and formed Penguin Random House, the world's largest publishing group.
Sales in the industry have been around $ 27 billion in recent years, but sales have increasingly gone from physical stores to the online bookstore, which in 2013 accounted for more than 40% of sales. A consequence of this is that a large number of stores have been knocked out, e.g. the Borders chain went bankrupt in 2011. It was then the world's second largest bookstore chain with 1,200 stores.
When it comes to e-books, the trend has been much faster than in Europe. In 2013, the e-books had a market share of about 25%, compared with about 2% in Sweden. Market leader is the e-commerce company Amazon, with the Kindle tablet, which is estimated to have more than half of the market (2013). The other two major players are Apple, with the iPad surfboard, and Barnes and Noble, the US's largest bookstore chain, with the Nook tablet.
Self-publishing, ie The fact that an author publishes a book on his own publisher has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly due to new technology (print on demand) and new business models. One example is the company Createspace, owned by Amazon, which offers everything from book printing in a single copy to proofreading, marketing and distribution. Of the approximately 350,000 titles released in 2012, about half were self-published. Add to this all the titles that are only published as e-books.
Copyright 2020 List of U.S. Newspapers