Turkmenistan has been inhabited by many
different peoples and therefore has plenty of influences
from other cultures in music, literature and other art
forms. Carpeting is the oldest and most famous art in
Archaeologists have found carpet remains that are
considered to be over 2,500 years old. Many beautiful
old carpet patterns have been preserved throughout
history to our time. The so-called Buchara rugs,
formerly sold in the city of Buchara in Uzbekistan, are
usually made by Turkmen.
Latest population statistics of Turkmenistan, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
The oldest sago tax is common to the Iranian and
Turkish peoples of the region and was transmitted orally
in ancient times. Most famous is the verse story Görogly
dessany (The son of the blind) from the 16th century.
The great name in Turkmen literature is the poet
Magtymguli Pyragy (1770-1840), who was banned in the
Soviet era (c. 1920-1991). The same was true of Oguz
Turkmen's national post Gorkut-ata. The foremost name
among modern Turkmen writers is Berdy Kerbabayev
(1894-1974), whose most important novel Nebit Day (1957)
is about Soviet oil workers on the Caspian Sea.
Almost half of the formal workforce in
Turkmenistan is employed in industry, while an equal
share is found in the service sector. Almost a tenth of
the employees work in agriculture. There is no union
freedom in the country.
Some Turkmen support themselves in the informal
sector of the economy, especially in agriculture.
Unemployment is believed to be quite high. Nevertheless,
many foreign nationals are working in Turkmenistan, as
there is a shortage of vocationally educated domestic
The right to organize is not respected and so is the
right to strike and the right to freedom of assembly.
The country's trade union organization is called the
National Center for Turkmenistan Trade Unions and covers
virtually all trade unions. It still functions to a
great extent according to the Soviet model, that is, as
a loyal tool for the regime.
The wage situation is low, although it has improved
somewhat in recent years. According to international
human rights organizations, forced labor exists,
although prohibited by law. Child labor is also reported
to occur, especially in the cotton fields.
FACTS - LABOR MARKET
3.9 percent (2019)
7.5 percent (2019)
A regional company is formed for gas pipeline construction
The four state gas companies in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India
form a joint company to build, own and administer the planned Tapi gas pipeline
from Turkmenistan via Afghanistan to Pakistan and India.