Newspapers in Slovakia
In Slovakia there are about 20 daily newspapers with a total edition of
900,000 copies. Newspaper publishing in Slovak began in the 1870s. The biggest
is the sensational newspaper Nový čas (founded in 1991, 230,000 copies) and one
of the leading newspapers of the Communist era, the party organization Pravda
(founded in 1920, now unbound, 235,000 copies).
Radio in Slovak started in 1926 and TV in 1956. The radio, Slovenský
rozhlas, broadcasts in four channels and Slovenská Televízia in
two, half of which is reserved for private TV. Radio and TV are financed with
license fees (70%) and advertising (30%). Private radio was allowed in 1991.
There are 965 radio and 407 TV receivers per 1,000 residents (2000).
Slovak folk culture differs from other West
Slavic cultures. This is probably due to the fact that
the Slovaks for centuries lived under Hungarian rule,
cut off from other Slavic peoples.
A unified Slovak writing language was created in 1843
by the theologian Ľudovít Štúr. After the founding of
Czechoslovakia in 1918, great efforts were made to
strengthen Slovak culture. Among the more well-known
authors of this era are Ján Smrek, Milo Urban and the
circle around the left-wing magazine DAV. Later writers
such as Ladislav Mňačko and Dominik Tatarka are noted.
Latest population statistics of Slovakia, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
Slovak culture, which has long been in the shadow of
the Czech, now stands on its own. Theater and music are
well developed and a Slovak production of their own has
started. The leading film director is Martin Šulík.
For Slovakia public policy, please check
Freedom of the press and opinion is
guaranteed by the Constitution. During the communist era
(1948–1989) the media were completely controlled by the
rulers, but even later their freedom was limited.
2006-2010 when the country was ruled by a left-wing
government led by Direction-Social Democracy (Smer-SD),
the state pressure on the media increased.
In 2008, a law was introduced that forced all media
to allow everyone mentioned in the media to give a
reply. The law was harshly criticized not only by the
country's journalists, but also by the Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The country's
courts were inundated by alleged cases of slander in the
media. After a right-wing government led by the Slovak
Democratic and Christian Union (SKDÚ-DS) took office in
2010, the number of advocacy goals and demands for media
replies and law was abolished the following year.
In 2011, it was revealed that the State Security
Service has been listening to four journalists for
several months, including the head of TA3 TV channel
Michal Gucik. The order came from Defense Minister
L'ubomir Galko, who later resigned. From an official
point of view, it was said that the journalists were
eavesdropped because they appeared in a criminal
investigation, something that was never proven.
The largest newspapers have private, often foreign
owners. By far the biggest edition is the evening
newspaper Novýas, which is owned by a Swiss company. The
second largest is the daily newspaper Pravda, which was
bought by Slovak investors from the British owners in
2010. The newspaper was formerly the Communist Party's
body, but is now politically unbound. The new owners
also own the TV channel Joj. Another significant
newspaper is the liberal, German-owned SME.
At the end of 2010, the state TV and radio companies
merged into a joint RTVS company. This is to become
stronger against the increasingly commercial etheric
media. From 2013, TV viewers no longer have to pay
licensing fees, but RTVS will be fully financed through
the state budget.
Of the many private TV channels, three broadcast
across the country: Markíza, TA3 and TV Joj. Most
viewers have Markíza, started by liberal politician
Pavol Rusko, but now owned by American investors,
followed by Joj and RTVS's Channel 1. Many Slovakians
also watch Czech and Hungarian TV. There are also about
thirty private radio channels. Some of them are
organized in networks covering the whole country.
FACTS - MASS MEDIA
Percentage of the population using the
81 percent (2018)
Number of mobile subscriptions per 100
Right-wing extremist in elections
In the local elections, right-wing nationalist Marian Kotleba is successful
in the Banská Bystrica region of central Slovakia. He ranks second in the
governor's first round and moves on to a decisive round, and he receives the
most votes in the regional assembly elections. The result is a cold shower for
democratic politicians. Political analysts are shocked when Kotleba then gets 55
percent of the vote in the second round of the governorship election. The
victory is explained by strong anti-Roman sentiments in the region.
EU call to demolish wall
The Košice municipal authorities, the European Capital of Culture 2013, are
urged by the European Commission to demolish the wall built to keep the Roma and
the rest of the city's residents separate (see June).
Wall at Roman settlement
In Slovakia's second largest city, Košice, a wall is erected next to a Roman
settlement, after other locals complained of theft and disorder in a nearby
Grants against the Roma
More than 60 riot police strike a settlement for Roma in the city of Moldava
nad Bodvou in southeastern Slovakia. Thirty people were injured. The voluntary
organization ETP, which works for the integration of Roma, believed that the
police used violence.
A Slovakian accused of spying in Iran is released and returns to his home
country. The man had been imprisoned and shown on Iranian TV with an alleged
confession that he was spying for US intelligence. He himself claimed his
innocence and said he did not know why he was arrested.