Rwanda has a rich literary tradition, orally
preserved and developed over the centuries. Modern
literature is written mainly in French. Hardly any
fiction has been published in the language of
During the reign until 1959 (see Older History), a
court dictation dominated that glorified the royal power
and consolidated the Tutsi claims to power. This
Tutorial poem, despite its poetic qualities, contributed
to deepening the mistrust between Tutsis and Hutus,
which in the second half of the 20th century triggered
several massacres and culminated in the 1994 genocide.
Latest population statistics of Rwanda, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
The foremost recorder of Rwandan literature was the
historian, ethnologist and philosopher Alexis Kagame
(1912-1981), who in the 1940s and 1950s published
several books on the history and culture of Tutsis.
Although he defended the Tuscan feudal empire, he was
allowed to continue his academic activities after the
Hutu's takeover of power in the 1960s.
After Rwanda's independence in 1962, the Hutu
people's literary and musical tradition has gained a
more prominent position. Much of the poetry and songs
describe the work in agriculture. Even among Hutus,
there is a rich flora of proverbs and work songs.
Author Benjamin Sehene has depicted the genocide in
the book Le Piège Ethnique (The Ethnic Trap),
in which he specifically highlights the circumstances
that led to the disaster. In the novel Le Feu sous
la Soutane (The Fire Under the Clergyman), he
recounts the true story of how a Hutu priest betrayed
the Tutsis he promised protection.
Conflict over the French language
Opposition Democratic Green Party sues the government before the Supreme
Court for intentionally neglecting the French language, even though the
Constitution states that French is an official language and equivalent to
Kinyarwanda and English. The use of French colonial language has gradually been
phased out following the 1994 genocide, when the French state, according to
Rwanda's current government, supported those responsible for the mass murders.
Presidential critics are condemned
Seven women and one man are each sentenced to five years in prison for
soliciting rebellion against President Kagame. All are members of a Christian
sect and were arrested in July 2013 outside the president's residence where they
should have made a prayer that the country's leaders should be replaced.
Ingabire appeals in prison
Opposition politician Victoire Ingabire appeals her prison sentence of 15
years (see December 2013) to the African Court of Human Rights,
a body within the AU.
Former officers are sentenced
Former President of the Guard, Joel Mutabazi, is sentenced to life
imprisonment for lying behind a series of armed attacks. He fled to Uganda in
2011 but was extradited from it in 2013. He is charged with cooperating with
banned hutu groups. Another former officer at the Presidential Guard is
sentenced to 25 years in prison and a further number are jailed for anything
between 25 years and a few months.
High military forces are arrested
A number of high-ranking military, including several with close ties to the
inner circle of state leadership, are arrested. Among other things, a retired
general and the former head of the president's guard force for "rioting to
rebellion" are prosecuted by spreading rumors. Assessors believe the arrests are
an expression of concern among those in power for increased activity within the
voluntary opposition movement RNC (Rwanda National Congress). Several of the
RNC's management have previously been top names in the ruling party FPR. The
government's critics accuse President Kagame of ruling the country with such
rigid bridges that the democracy that formally prevails in practice has been
Murekezi new prime minister
President Kagame appoints Labor Minister Anastase Murekezi as new Prime
Minister. Murekezi belongs to the Social Democratic Party (PSD) which is part of
the ruling coalition led by the president's party FPR. Some minor changes are
being made in the government, but all the heavier ministers are keeping their
Border battles against Congo-Kinshasa
Battles are fought between Congolese and Rwandan soldiers in the border area
between Rwanda and Congo-Kinshasa, on par with the Congolese province of
Rwanda marks the 20th anniversary of the genocide
With ceremonial ceremonies, the Rwandans commemorate the 20th anniversary of
the 1994 genocide outbreak. A government delegation is suspending its visit
after President Kagame again accused France of supporting the then Hutu regime
and helped many of the instigators of the genocide escape. The ambassador of
France should then be banned from the commemoration of the Rwandan government.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon says the shame is still hanging over the World
Organization for not doing enough to prevent the mass murder.
Former army captain is sentenced in France
Former Army Captain Pascal Simbikangwa is sentenced to 25 years in prison in
a Paris trial. He is convicted of rioting, organizing and contributing to
massacres of Tutsis in the capital Kigali and the Gisenyi region during the 1994
genocide. The fact that Simbikangwa was brought to trial in France has attracted
attention, since the French state has been accused of standing at the then the
Hutur regime and protected those responsible for the genocide. The trial of
Simbikangwa is the first in France against a perpetrator of the Rwandan
Former intelligence chief found dead
Former intelligence chief Patrick Karegeya is found dead in a hotel room in
South Africa, where police suspect murder. Karegeya was close to President
Kagame but joined with him and was dismissed and degraded in 2004. After sitting
in prison in his home country, he has lived in exile in South Africa since 2007.
Together with former Army Chief Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa, who also moved to
South Africa, formed he 2010 opposition party Rwanda's National Congress.
Nyamwasa has twice been subjected to attempted murder in the country's escape.