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Newspapers in Russia

Censorship easing during the last year of the Soviet Union led to an increased readership, and editions grew sharply for all major newspapers except the Communist Party's Pravda, whose circulation dropped from 9.7 million copies. 1989 to 3.2 million ex. 1991. However, in the last year the ransom number prices multiplied as a result of the abolition of government subsidies for newsprint. Therefore, TV soon became the dominant information medium in the new Russia. Half of the shares in the former Soviet national channel Pervyj Kanal were sold in 1994 to private owners, and financier Boris Berezovsky (1946-2013) took over control. In parallel, another financier, Vladimir Gusinsky (born 1952), built the popular NTV channel.

Russia Newspapers

Both Berezovsky's and Gusinsky's media empires were perceived by Vladimir Putin as a threat to his authority when he was first elected president in 2000. Shortly after Putin's accession, both NTV and its holding companies were stormed by masked personnel from the tax police and security services and Gusinsky was forced to sell the holding company -Media. The following year, Berezovsky was forced to sell his TV holdings to Putin's related financier Roman Abramovich. Following Putin's re-entry into the 2012 presidential office, several journalists with independent profiles have been forced to leave positions within media companies controlled by the state or by businessmen who have accepted Putin's leadership role.

The annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the subsequent war in eastern Ukraine were coordinated with an organized disinformation campaign in Russia's state media. Media researchers have documented how a couple of hundred news images from other situations or other parts of the world have been published in Russian media stating that they show the consequences of attacks from Ukraine. A British study published in April 2015 identified nearly 20,500 automated Twitter accounts that make a positive statement on, among other things, Russian Ukraine policy. Interventions have been made against social media and local press reporting Russian soldiers who have fallen in battle in Ukraine. In some cases, journalists have also been abused.

In 2014, control over the internet was tightened by a law that says blogs and social media with more than 3,000 followers must register publishing certificates in the same way as regular media.

In 2014, approximately 70 per cent of the population stated that they mainly followed the news development via state TV channels, 5 per cent via private TV channels, 15 per cent via the Internet, 2 per cent via radio and 1 per cent via state newspapers. The role of the private magazines as news brokers is insignificant.

News agencies

Two of the dominant news agencies, Tass and RIA Novosti, are state-owned. In 1991每2013, RIA Novosti was the name of the former Soviet publishing house APN, which through books and newsletters would both disseminate an authorized image of Soviet society to the outside world and provide a Soviet perspective on other countries. In 2013, RIA Novosti was replaced by Rossija Segodjna (Russia today) with a mission similar to the historic APN. Instead, RIA Novosti became the name of a new news service which, like the 2014 multimedia editor Sputnik (formerly Radio Moskva / Voice of Russia) is divisions under Rossija Segodjna.

The third news agency, Interfax, consists of several private regional and national agencies with different orientations working under a common brand. The Ministry of the Interior produces elements of law enforcement for both central and regional TV channels.

Internet and mobile telephony

More than half the population uses the internet regularly and many do so via their mobile phones. There are almost twice as many active mobile phone accounts as residents of the Russian Federation. However, access to the internet and mobile telephony is limited outside the cities. In Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Yekaterinburg, however, the use is significantly higher than the national average.

The Internet is mainly used for e-mail, video and telephone calls, to listen to music and to watch movies, to search for information at work or for household needs and in social networks. Among the latter, Russian Odnoklassniki (a counterpart to Swedish StayFriends), VKontakte (which is similar to Facebook) and Moj Mir, like Odnoklassniki and 40 percent of VKontakte, are dominated by Mail.Ru (which can be compared with web portals such as Yahoo !, Lycos and Google in Western Europe and the United States). Approximately one in ten Internet users use the technology to stay informed on social issues.

The largest operator for mobile telephony with a third of subscribers is MTS, which is controlled by the Russian Federation's largest listed holding company, Sistema, where the financier Vladimir Yevchenko (born 1948) owns 64 percent of the shares. The second largest operator MegaFon is owned by the magnate Alisher Usmanov (born 1953) together with TeliaSonera. Another quarter of subscribers are customers of VimpelCom, which operates under the Beeline brand and is owned by Telenor and the Russian financier Michail Fridman (born 1964).

Shortly after taking office as President in 2000, President Putin issued a supplement to the law governing SORM, the technology used for intercepting mobile telephony and the Internet. The network operators are obliged, at their own expense, to provide representatives of certain authorities with connection and software for monitoring the servers. Later that year, the Supreme Court ruled that an authority is required to inform an operator when using SORM. Authorities that have the right to use interception technology are the police and security police, the special tax police, the customs and the border guard.

In 2012, the Internet control legislation was supplemented, resulting in a federal agency that blacklists and blocks websites with, for example, child pornography and extremist material. Politically uncomfortable material also appears to be blocked.

According to opinion polls, two-thirds of the Russian Federation's population is prepared to accept some censorship of the Internet. On a number of occasions, regional servers have been shut down for some time or ordered to block websites that have published politically oppositional messages. DDoS (congestion attack) attacks have on some occasions been targeted at websites that have reported irregularities in general elections.

Radio and TV

Although TV's share of the media auditorium is declining slowly, but surely TV is still the largest. Most viewers have the state-owned channel Rossija 1 as well as the half-state-owned Pervyj channel and NTV with 12每15 percent of viewers respectively. It is also these three channels that have the greatest coverage in the terrestrial network (83每93 per cent of the residents). Many regional channels are linked to the nationwide or controlled by regional authorities, but there are also standalone ones.

Contrary to television viewers, the number of radio listeners increases slightly and amounts to about 40 million daily, of which just under a quarter use the old technology with wireless radio. Through this, broadcasts are mainly distributed from state-owned radio Maj芍k and Radio Rossii as well as municipal-owned local radio stations. However, the largest proportion of listeners have privately owned radio stations such as Europa Plus (about 15 percent), which fill much of the program time with music. Echo Moskvy, which is partly owned by the semi-state Gazprom-Media and reaches about 5 percent of the listeners, gives room for more opinions in society than most news media in the Russian Federation.

Daily press and magazine

The largest editions among the newspapers are the free newspapers Iz Ruk v Ruki and Metro, the latter owned by the Swedish Kinneviks sphere. Among those sold through subscriptions / ransom numbers, the state of Rossijskaja Gazeta and privately owned Moskovsky Komsomolets dominate, which daily come out in just over 1 million items. Izvestija can also be counted among the more influential daily newspapers with a circulation of about 335,000 copies. (2012) under the control of Petersburg magnate Jury Kovaltjuk (born 1951)), Kommersant (edition 220,000 copies) owned by the magnate Alisjer Usmanov, business newspaper Vedomosti (edition just over 130,000 copies) long owned by Dow Jones, Financial Times and Sanoma and Novaja Gazeta (edition 110,000 copies) with the last of the Soviet Union President Michail Gorbachev among the partners. Among the major weekly magazines can be mentioned the picture magazine Ogonj車k with an edition of 860,000 copies, which is now controlled by Kommersant.

In the fall of 2014, a new law was passed which means that media companies may own a maximum of 20 percent of foreign interests. As a result, some fifteen international media groups, including Swedish CTC Media and the Modern Times Group, have begun to divest part of their holdings. Finnish Sanoma sold its shares in April 2015.

Russia's first regularly published newspaper was Vedomosti ('Bulletins'). It began to be published in 1703 on the initiative of Peter I. the tsar's reports on the war against Sweden. The first privately owned magazine was called Trudoljubivaja Ptjela ('Diligent Bite') and was published in 1759. In the latter part of the 18th century, Truten ('The Drone') and other satirical magazines gained considerable popularity.

From the beginning, all non-religious works were personally controlled by the self-ruler. Religious writings were guarded by the Holy Synod. In the early 19th century, Russia was given the first laws governing censorship, and special bodies were set up to prevent anything that undermined the authority of the tsarist regime. In the 1860s, Alexander II facilitated  censorship, which contributed to the emergence of a mass proliferation press. In 1864, Peterburgsky Listok ('Petersburg magazine') became the first newspaper to focus on sensations and local news. In 1866 the news agency RTA (Russkoye Telegrafnoje Agentstvo) was founded.

In the 19th century, the Russian tradition was founded with so-called thick magazines, where debate and publicity are mixed with novels and literary works. Literary critic Vissarion Belinsky and writers such as Pushkin and Chekhov collaborated in these. The social debate was dominated by Golos ('The Voice') and Novoje Vremja ('New Age') during the late 19th century, but it was only in the early 1900s that the press became truly politicized. Moscow's largest newspaper was the liberal Russkoye Slovo ('The Russian Word'), Saint Petersburg's the conservative Birzhevyje Vedomosti ('Exchange Bulletins'). Inspired by Aleksandr Herzen, the revolutionary opposition had begun publishing Russian-language newspapers in Western Europe during the 19th century. In 1912 the Bolsheviks were able to start their magazine Pravda ('The Truth') in Saint Petersburg. The Russian press,

After 1917, gradually all the mass media came under the control of the Communist Party. The leading Russian-language newspapers and later radio and TV got the entire Soviet Union as a sprawl; see Soviet Union (Mass Media).

Book and publishing system

The first printed Russian volume, a translation of the Acts of the Apostles, was published in Moscow in 1564 by Ivan Fjodorov. A manuscript tradition existed from the 11th century with the Ostromie Gospel (1056每57) as the oldest memorial. Primarily religious literature for liturgical and educational use came in print; all texts were printed from the beginning with Cyrillic alphabet. The church and the tsar quickly realized the importance of the printing press, which is why all book publishing came to be central.

The first real printing house, Moskovsky petjatnyj dvor ('Moscow printing house '), was founded by Ivan IV in Moscow in the early 1560s. In the 1600s, books with educational content began to be printed: ABC book and grammar, among other things. Meletij Smotritsky's "Slavjanskaja grammar" ("Slavic grammar"), printed in Vilnius in 1619, reprinted in Moscow in 1648 and 1721. Some scientific literature was published, as well as some foreign.

In the 18th century, book publishing underwent a radical change through Peter I's reforms: state printing houses were founded in Moscow and Saint Petersburg; a bourgeois Russian alphabet, based on the antiquarian style, was introduced in 1708. Thereafter, only religious literature could be printed with the older Cyrillic alphabet. In 1783, the state monopoly ceased and private printing houses were founded, but they were banned as early as 1796 under the impression of revolutionary events in Europe. During the first half of the 19th century, typography and graphic technology were developed. In 1872 the first part of Karl Marx's "Das Kapital" was published in Russian translation.

At the turn of the 1900s, the publication of religious literature was still significant; political literature was mostly printed abroad or illegally in the country. In 1906, a legal Bolshevik printing press, Vperjod ('Forward') arose in Saint Petersburg. At the same time, mass production of brochures was introduced. After 1917, the publishing and printing services went into the hands of the state. Specialist publishers emerged: Vsemirnaja literatura ('The World Literature'), Nauka ('Science'), Progress (publishing of foreign literature). In 1926, the publication of Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopedija began.

After the fall of communism, book publishing dropped dramatically, but has increased just as dramatically since the Russian economy began to recover from around 2000. Absolutely reliable statistics are missing, but in 2008 the number of new titles was estimated at close to 100,000, and sales were estimated at 2.2-2, US $ 5 million. However, the financial crisis hit hard in 2009 in all parts of the book industry. Electronic publishing and internet sales play a very small role compared to Western industrialized countries.

The largest publishers include the Azbuka 每 Attikus (Azbooka 每 Atticus) group, to which Inostranka, specialized in translations of foreign fiction into Russian, OLMA Media Grupp with many bestselling Russian authors and the publishing and teaching publishing company Prosveschjenije ('Enlightenment') with voice from the Soviet era.

Culture

The Russian became a fictional language in the early 1700s, when Peter the Great's reform policy brought about a cultural boost for Russia. A century later, Ivan Krylov published his first fables. Somewhat later, the romantic lyricist Alexander Pushkin (Eugen Onegin) and the novelist Michail Lermontov (The Hero of Our Time) appeared, followed by the satirist and socialist Nikolaj Gogol (Dead Souls, The Auditor).

From the middle of the 19th century, Russian literature experienced a flourishing era and a number of writers became internationally famous. The Russian classics include Ivan Gontyarov (Oblomov), Ivan Turgenyev (Fathers and Sons), Fjodor Dostoevsky (Crime and Punishment, the Karamazov Brothers), Lev Tolstoy (War and Peace, Anna Karenina). Alexander Ostrovsky (Storm) created the realistic drama. The next classic generation was the playwright and novelist.

  • Countryaah: Latest population statistics of Russia, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.

Anton Chekhov (Cherry Garden) and the first proletarian author Maxim Gorkij (The Night Army, My Childhood). Modern lyricism had its breakthrough decades after the turn of the century through poets such as Vladimir Majakovsky, Osip Mandelstam, Anna Achmatova and Boris Pasternak. Prose writers after the October Revolution of 1917 (see Modern History) include Isaak Babel, Michail Bulgakov, Ivan Bunin and Michail Sjolochov. In the early 1900s, the Russian theater became a role model for foreign countries through innovative directors such as Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vsevolod Meyerhold.

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Culture of RussiaDuring the Stalin period (1929–1953), all artistic directions except the "socialist realism" were ascribed. Many significant writers and other artists were silenced. Several were arrested and died in prison camps. After Josef Stalin's death in 1953, a brief "thaw" came with the publication of socially critical novels, as well as an emerging critical and centrally critical poetry. A number of blacklisted plays, including Majakovsky and Bulgakov, were released. In the 1970s, the experimental tradition of the 1920s was passed on by Yuriy Ljubimov at the small Tagan Cathedral in Moscow.

The criticism of Stalinism culminated with Alexander Solzhenitsyn's A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962). Thereafter, the cultural climate again hardened. Instead, there was extensive illegal manuscript distribution (samizdat) within the country and smuggling of manuscripts to the West. Boris Pasternak's great novel Doctor Zhivago, who was smuggled to Italy, aroused great prominence in the West. Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1958 but was forced to resign. Solzhenitsyn received the 1970 Nobel Prize for smuggled novels such as The First Circuit and the Cancer Clinic. The award led to fierce controversy with the regime and in 1974 Solzhenitsyn was expelled. In the early 1970s, a large number of other cultural creators were forced or allowed to emigrate.

Under President Mikhail Gorbachev's reform policy in the late 1980s, the Soviet period began to be openly criticized and previously banned authors and works were published. In the 1990s, a young postmodernist generation of writers appeared with an outspoken and narrative technique that the Russian readers were not used to. Vladimir Sorokin's novel Blue Fat aroused excitement for both experimental style and candid sex depictions, which led to prosecution for pornography offenses. Viktor Pelevin's novels, such as Omon Ra, did not stir less resurrection. Both of these authors have retained their positions as the foremost in Russian contemporary literature. An esteemed and more traditional storyteller is Ljudmila Ulitskaja. A younger generation of writers is trying to pick up the glove after the Strugatskij brothers' science fiction depictions of the 1980s with newly written fantasy books. This includes author Dmitry Gluchovsky.

In the drama, a young generation sought new paths during the late 1990s. They broke through in the early 2000s under the name "New Russian Drama" and portrayed young people's difficulties finding their place in a society where the cohesive kit was violence in various forms. Among the most interesting playwrights are Nikolai Koljada, Vasilij Sigarev, Evgenij Grishkovets, the brothers Presnjakov, Ivan Vyrypaev and Jury Klavdiev. Mention should also be made of the new documentary theater verbatim, represented mainly by the small theater Teatr.doc in Moscow.

After the takeover of the Bolsheviks, Russian film gained a special position as a propaganda medium. The foremost innovator was Sergei Eisenstein whose 1925 film Panzar Cruiser Potemkin is regarded as an international classic. The great Soviet postwar films include the Cranes of 1957 (Michail Kalatozov) and Ballad about a 1959 soldier (Grigorij Chuchraj), who were the first to portray the reality of the small world in the shadow of war.

Among the most internationally acclaimed Russian filmmakers who began their career during the Soviet era, Andrei Tarkovsky with films such as Andrej Rubljov, Solaris, Stalker and The Victim. This includes Alexander Sokurov with the movie The Russian Ark, and Nikita Michalkov with Burned by the Sun.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, some difficult years for the Russian film industry followed, but then a series of film successes were produced. These include Alexei Balabanov's Brother and Brother 2 and Cargo 200. The latter is a nightmare account of events surrounding the body of a Russian soldier sent home from Afghanistan in a zinc chest. Great commercial success met the fantasy films Night Guardian and Day Guardian by Timur Bekmambetov. Among the "new wave" of Russian filmmakers in the 21st century are Boris Chlebnikov with the film Free Flow, Andrei Zvjagintsev with The Return, Kirill Serebrennikov with Imagining Victims and Ivan Vyrypaev with Euforiya.

Visual art has a long tradition from icon painting and folk art through realists such as Ilja Repin (died 1930) to modernism. International art development has received crucial impetus from the Russian avant-garde of the 1910s and 1920s with names such as Natalja Gontjarova, Michail Larionov, Marc Chagall, Vasily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Alexander Rodchenko. In the early 1930s, modernism was banned and the partisan "socialist realism" was raised to the norm in painting as well as in all other art forms, that is, art would be realistic in form but future-oriented socialist in content.

With the thawing weather under Nikita Khrushchev, the young artists sought new ways and their experimentation first found expression in abstract expressionism. Following scandals and strong criticism from the Communist Party, the innovative art was forced to become underground. Under the collective term "non-conformism", Soviet underground art developed in the 1970s and 1980s a number of directions which should first be mentioned Moscow conceptualism, represented by Ilja Kabakov, Dmitry Prigov and Andrei Monastyrsky and SotsArt with Komar & Melamid, Alexander, among others Kosolapov and Leonid Sokov.

The market for Russian contemporary art exploded in the mid-2000s and a number of galleries and art centers opened in closed industrial areas. Art activist groups have won both Russian and international fame through political protest actions in artistic form.
Russian music has evolved from a rich folk and church music tradition. In folk music, balalajka and accordion were the most popular instruments. In the 18th century, St. Petersburg became Russia's musical center, where both German and Italian music gained great influence. Concert life was developed and a number of conservatories and music schools were set up. The Bolshoi Theater in Moscow, which was built in 1825, has formed the hub of the Russian musical theater with grand opera and ballet sets.

Major composers during the 19th century were Nikolaj Rimsky-Korsakov and Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Alexander Skrjabin and Igor Stravinsky noticed the "modernist" music life before the revolution in 1918. Prominent composers during the Soviet era were, among others, Sergei Rachmaninov, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitry Shostakovich and Aram Chatyaturjan. Apart from Alfred Schnittke and Sofija Gubajdulina, Russian composers of later generations now belong to the much younger Vladimir Martynov.

2010

December

Prolonged penalty for Chodorovsky

A court sentenced former Yukos owner Michail Chodorkovsky, who is still serving an eight-year prison sentence, for embezzlement. Chodorkovsky must therefore remain in prison until 2016. In the West, the verdict is termed political, since before he was arrested Chodorkovsky had supported the opposition.

September

Car bomb in North Ossetia

Five Russian soldiers are killed in a suicide attack against an army base in Dagestan. In North Ossetia, 16 people are killed by a car bomb in a market.

Medvedev dismisses Luzhkov

Medvedev dismisses Moscow's longtime mayor Yuriy Luzhkov. He has been accused of corruption and inaction during the big forest fires around Moscow during the summer. He also criticized Medvedev for letting him stop a motorway construction in a Moscow suburb.

August

Islamist leader killed

In Dagestan, Russian anti-terrorist forces kill Magomedali Vagabov, a radical Islamist leader who is accused of being behind the attacks on Moscow's subway.

July

Russian spy ring in the US is revealed

A Russian spy ring is revealed in the US. The US authorities seize ten Russians who plead guilty and flee to Vienna where they are exchanged for four Russians who have been imprisoned in Russia for spying on the West's behalf.

MRI counseling resigns

Ella Pamfilova, the president's adviser on human rights issues, resigns since the duma passed a law that gives the security service greater powers. It triggers speculation about a power struggle in the Kremlin between conservative forces and more liberal-minded groups.

Forest fires kill in Moscow

Large forest fires are raging outside Moscow, sweeping the city into smog. At least 50 people are killed.

March

Attacks in Stavropol

Six people are killed in an attack on a concert hall in the southern Russian city of Stavropol.

Explosion in the Caucasus

Twelve people are killed in Dagestan and two in Ingushenia in various explosions.

39 people killed in attacks in Moscow

In Moscow, 39 people were killed in two suicide attacks on the subway.

United Russia wins elections

In new local and regional elections, United Russia again wins, but with poorer results than last year. The electoral authority criticizes irregularities in the elections.

January

Demonstration in Kalingrad

Large protest demonstration against the Kaliningrad government.

 

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