Peru has a rich mix of cultures, but the
country is characterized mainly by the influence of
indigenous peoples and Spaniards. The people of the
highlands have strong origins of origin, while the
well-educated elite on the coast have strong ties to
The cultures are mixed to some extent, but at the
same time there is a large gap between them. In villages
that are organized much like during the Inca culture,
with common lands and collective labor, parts of the
indigenous population live far from Western society.
However, European elements are seen in clothing, music
and at various festivals. Their world is considered
foreign and left behind by many on the coast.
Latest population statistics of Peru, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
This cleavage between the original and the western
has been described by the Peruvian writer José Maria
Arguedas. As a son of a white lawyer, he grew up in the
Andes with quechua as his mother tongue. In his
autobiographical novel The Deep Rivers (1958),
he depicts oppression and sharp class divisions in the
Andean world. The internationally best-known author is
Mario Vargas Llosa, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Literature 2010. He has written, among other things,
The Green House and Talks in the Cathedral,
his perhaps best-known work played during the
dictatorship of the 1950s. Vargas Llosa is also known
for a failed jump in politics in the late 1980s (see
Modern History). The most famous name in the lyrics is
Songaah: List and lyrics of songs related to the country name of Peru. Artists and albums are also included.
The rich folk culture lives among other things in
oral stories, crafts and music. Drums and various flutes
are original Native American instruments, while the
stringed instruments came with the Spanish.
Charrango became the Andean variant of the guitar,
made of the shield animal's shield. The "Andean folk
music" that has become known outside of Peru with
guitar, charrango, pan flute and drum is a music made
for a Western market. The popular music flowing from
speakers on buses and markets, with falsette song and
brass, may be less enjoyable for European ears, but it
is a living Native American music tradition.
Extensive protests against pardon
Violent protests erupt against the pardon of ex-President Fujimori and new
demands are raised on the resignation of incumbent President Kuczynski. Angry
protesters clash with police who use tear gas to prevent them from reaching the
hospital where Fujimori is temporarily being cared for by low blood pressure and
cardiac disorders. Supporters of Alberto Fujimori are celebrating at the same
Ex-President Fujimori pardoned
President Kuczynski pardons Alberto Fujimori, the now 79-year-old
ex-president who was sentenced to 25 years in prison for human rights crimes and
corruption. The pardon is a result of a deal with the ex-president's son Kenji
Fujimori, who made sure to reduce the number of congressional votes for the
proposal to put Kuczynski before state law three days earlier. Kuczynski pardons
seven other people at the same time.
North Korean diplomats are expelled
Two North Korean diplomats - the first and third secretaries - are ordered to
leave the country within two weeks. According to a statement from the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, the two have engaged in activities that are not in line with
their "official duties". North Korea's violation of UN resolutions on
non-proliferation of nuclear weapons also plays a role as threats to regional
and global security, it states. In September, North Korea's ambassador was
The President gets away with national law
Congress votes down a motion to initiate state law against President Pedro
Pablo Kuczynski. Proponents of national law wanted to try the allegations of
bribery (see November 2017). Kuczynski himself spoke before
Congress during the ten-hour debate and accused the opposition of trying to
implement a coup. In the end, 79 members voted in favor of the proposal (87
needed to get the two-thirds majority).
The pressure is mounting on the president to step down
President Kuczynski rejects demands that he resign and denies, just as in
November, that he would have received bribes. Now, however, Kuczynski admits
that he has been a consultant for the Brazilian building conglomerate Odebrecht.
The largest party in Congress, the right-wing party FP, demands that the
president resign and threaten to otherwise put him before the national court.
The claim comes after Odebrecht stated that $ 5 million was paid to Kuczynski's
Westfield Capital company during his time as finance minister.
Four construction managers are sentenced to bribery scandal
Four executives at construction companies with links to Brazilian
conglomerate Odebrecht are sentenced to 18 months in prison for bribing
ex-president Alejandro Toledo. A fifth receives house arrest for failing health.
The judgment is the first in the country in the extensive Odebrecht mutiny that
shakes much of Latin America.
The President denies bribery charges
President Kuczynski rejects in a televised speech allegations that he
received bribes or campaign grants from Odebrecht. He also dismisses claims that
he should have been hired as a consultant by the Brazilian construction giant,
ten years ago and after resigning as finance minister. The information comes
from former CEO Marcelo Odebrecht, who is serving a long prison sentence in
Cannabis is approved as a drug
Congress votes by a large majority to legalize cannabis for medical use. The
new law gives the go-ahead to manufacture, import and sell cannabis oil. Peru
becomes the sixth country in Latin America to legalize cannabis.
Police killed in assault in the Amazon
A police officer is killed in an assault by unknown perpetrators in the area
surrounding the city of Puerto Maldonado in the Amazon. The area has serious
problems with illegal logging and illegal mining. Four police officers and a
guide are injured in the assault.
The government of Peru is overthrown by Congress
President Kuczynski's government is forced to step down since it was cast in
a congressional vote, which is dominated by the opposition. The reason for the
government's failure is that the opposition is critical to how the Minister of
Education has handled a long-lasting teacher strike. A government transformation
is taking place, with Mercedes Aráoz as the new prime minister. It will take up
two days later.
North Korea's ambassador expelled
Peru orders North Korea's ambassador Kim Hak-chol to leave the country within
five days. The decision is a direct result of the recent North Korean regime
having conducted several nuclear weapons tests in violation of international
agreements. Shortly before, the United States has called on a number of Latin
American countries to break diplomatic relations with Pyongyang.
Diplomatic protest against Venezuela
Peru orders Venezuela's ambassador to leave the country on the ground since
the government of Caracas "violated the democratic rules of the game" by
appointing a constitutional assembly that has widespread power. Venezuela in
turn exports Peru's ambassador.
Ex-President Humala arrested
Former President Ollanta Humala and his wife Nadine Heredia are being held in
custody pending trial. The couple is suspected of receiving money from
construction company Odebrecht to fund their election campaign (see also
November 2016 and January 2017).
Diplomatic dispute with Venezuela
The government revokes the ambassador to Venezuela and sends a letter of
protest to the government in Caracas. The reason is that Venezuelan Foreign
Minister Delcy Rodríguez called Kuczynski a "dog" who is always waving his tail
for the United States.
Former President Toledo is arrested
Authorities are calling on former President Alejandro Toledo detained since
he was singled out in the big corruption scandal surrounding Odebrecht (see
January 2017). Toledo is believed to be in the United States,
and President Kuczynski is requesting a phone call with his American colleague
Donald Trump to extradite him. Toledo, whose home has been searched, is
suspected to have received $ 20 million in bribes. He himself claims that the
charges constitute "political lynching".
The president orders the construction giant to leave the country
President Kuczynski orders the Brazilian building conglomerate Odebrecht to
leave Peru, where the company is involved in several major infrastructure
investments. The background is the huge corruption scandal in Brazil, where
Odebrecht is at the center. Odebrecht's representatives have acknowledged that
the company paid $ 29 million in bribes in Peru between 2005 and 2014, under
Presidents Alejandro Toledo, Alan García and Ollanta Humala. The government has
now deprived Odebrecht of a $ 7 billion gas pipeline project.
Free trade agreements are stopped
US newly elected President Donald Trump put an end to the Trans-Pacific
Partnership (TPP) Free Trade Agreement, signed in February 2016 but not yet
ratified by most participants. Peru is one of three Latin American countries in
TTP (the others are Chile and Mexico). In total, the agreement, which is now on
ice, includes twelve Pacific countries and Asia, which together account for one
third of world trade.
Ex-president is sentenced in Italy
Francisco Morales Bermúdez, who was president from 1975 to 1980, is sentenced
to life imprisonment for his participation in Operation Condor, a campaign
conducted by right-wing junta in South America against left-wing forces from
1975., while 19 defendants are released after the two-year trial. Morales
Bermúdez is 95 years old.