Mongolia has a rich treasure of heroic epic
stories, legends, fairy tales and poetry. Literature is
preserved from the 13th century, but the oral narrative
art has had a greater significance than literature.
Religion has an important cultural bearing role. In the
1500s, 1600s and 1700s, many religious texts were
translated from Tibetan and Sanskrit. In the monasteries
there were also high-class sculptures and religious
An interesting feature of traditional music is the
larynx chöömij, which uses harmonics to allow the singer
to sing a melody in treble, while the vocal cords give
off a low-frequency bass.
Latest population statistics of Mongolia, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
During the communist-controlled period (1924-1990),
the Mongolian cultural tradition was suppressed by the
authorities. Between 1936 and 1956 the repression was
particularly severe. Old manuscripts were burnt
repeatedly, not least religious texts. The Mongols were
forbidden to pay tribute to or even remember national
heroes such as Jingi's khan and Khubilai (Chubilaj) khan
(see Ancient History). The national culture was put in
the bag, apart from some superficial folkloric elements.
Instead, a kind of all-Soviet cultural life was
cultivated. In all arts, socialist realism was offered.
Several major writers came into conflict with this.
Dasjdorzhijn Natsagdorzj, which was inspired by Russian
and German culture, is regarded as Mongolia's leading
author during the 20th century.
From the mid-1980s - as President Mikhail Gorbachev's
reforms gained influence in the Soviet Union - the
repression in Mongolia was alleviated. When the
Communist monopoly of power ceased in 1990, cultural
liberation increased in strength. The position of one's
own language was strengthened, old cultural expressions
were dusted off and traditional clothing, older street
names and folkloric traditions were honored again. The
Mongols also decided to start using their third name
again, which can be said to reflect family or customer
affiliation. This name was banned during the communist
era and many had forgotten what the family was
In 2002, the 840th anniversary was celebrated by the
birth of Djingi's khan and in Ulan Bator the foundation
stone was added to a giant monument of the historical
warrior. Four years later, Mongolia celebrated 800 years
as a nation, including the erection of a building
dedicated to Genghis Khan in the capital.
The Mongolian filmmaker Byambasuren Davaa (Davaagijn
Bjambasüren), based in Germany, has achieved great
international success. Among other things, she was
nominated in 2004 for an Oscar for best documentary film
with The Crying Camel.
Broad coalition government
The opposition parties agree to form part of a broad coalition government
together with DP. In addition to the MPP, the Justice Coalition and the Civil
Courage Party-The Greens also participate in the cooperation.
The Prime Minister is forced to resign
Decides that Norovyn Altanchujag will resign as prime minister after he has
been accused, among other things, of corruption; Deputy Prime Minister Dendev
Terbisjdagva becomes Prime Minister until a successor is appointed. A couple of
weeks later, Parliament elected Tjimedijn Sajchanbileg as prime minister. The
opposition party MPP boycott the vote.
Free Trade Agreement with Japan
Japan and Mongolia enter into a free trade agreement which also includes
protection for foreign companies investing in Mongolia. According to a Japanese
official, Japan hopes that deepened trade relations with Mongolia will
contribute to a more stable situation in Northeast Asia. Mongolia is one of the
few states that has relations with North Korea and Japan, hoping it can
facilitate the ongoing process of finding out what happened to the Japanese who
kidnapped North Korean agents in the 1970s and 1980s.
Defense agreement with the United States
The US and Mongolia agree to strengthen their military cooperation, including
through joint exercises. The agreement is concluded at a meeting between the two
defense ministers in Ulan Bator.