Ethnic and cultural diversity is great in the
Ivory Coast. Well-known are the wood-carved masks, which
play an important role in cultural rites and ceremonies.
The Baulé people have developed a special wood carving
art. Wooden sculptures from the Ivory Coast were among
the first examples of art from Black Africa exhibited in
Europe. The Dan people in the western Ivory Coast make
murals with white and red clay on their houses built of
Written literature is a late phenomenon and has come
to relate partly to the oral tradition's way of playing
associations and partly to Western tradition. The first
novels were autobiographical and were written during the
1950s, when criticism of the colonial empire prevailed.
Then came works on social and political abuses in the
independent Ivory Coast, such as Ahmadou Kourouma's
Les Soleils des indépendances, where the author
mixes French with his own native language Malinké.
Latest population statistics of Ivory Coast, including religious profiles and major languages spoken as well as population growth rates in next three decades.
Werewere Liking, a leading female writer in
French-speaking Africa, originally came from Cameroon
but emigrated to the Ivory Coast, where tolerance to
artistic experimentation was greater. Famous writers
include Bernard Dadier, Veronique Tadjo and Marguerite
Reggae music is popular in Ivory Coast. Reggae singer
Alpha Blondy has used the music to criticize the
country's directors. Reggae star Tiken Jah Fakoly, who
lives in exile in Mali, also writes socially critical
texts. Among the more well-known Ivorian rap artists is
Rudy Rudiction and Garba 50. A new star on the rap scene
is Bop de Narr, whose name hints at a French legend Bob
Denard who has been involved in several coups in the
One of the most well-known visual artists Frédéric
Bruly Bouabré 1923– 2014, among other things, created
400 pictograms that could be combined into a written
language for the bété people. Other famous artists are
Tamsir Dia, Jems Robert Koko Bi and Franck Fanny.
Freedom of the press and freedom of
expression are guaranteed in the Constitution, but the
authorities do not tolerate too critical a review. Many
media act as language pipes for political parties.
During the war and subsequent crises, the media was
accused of stoking ethnic tensions, and in connection
with the political turmoil in 2010/2011, the media was
used by politicians for propaganda purposes. Although
the situation has improved significantly since Alassane
Ouattara's government took office in 2011, opposition
media are still subjected to threats and pressure from
Journalists run the risk of being harassed and abused
by police. State media is under government control.
Ahead of the 2015 presidential election, political
opponents were spotted in partisan media.
The State National Press Council (CNP), which
regulates print media, has often been used to warn
journalists, to impose fines or to temporarily shut down
open-air newspapers. Defamation laws and prohibitions to
present "fake news" or articles that threaten the
security of the state limit the freedom of the press.
In 2015, Ivory Coast was ranked 86th out of 180
countries in Reporters Without Borders index of freedom
of the press in the country.
Among the largest newspapers is the
government-friendly newspaper Fraternité Matin. The FPI
party is behind Notre Voie, while Le Nouvea Réveil
supports the PDCI party and Le Patriote is the spokesman
for President Ouattara's party RDR (for party
descriptions see Political system).
The radio reaches out to most Ivorians. The
state-owned radio and TV company RTI broadcasts
throughout the country. There are also a number of
private radio channels. However, only RTI's and two
private radio stations broadcast across the country. The
private channels are not entitled to comment on the
political developments in the country in their programs.
In addition, Ivorians can listen to foreign radio
stations, such as Radio France Internationale (RFI). To
counter hate propaganda in domestic media, in 2005 the
UN launched its own radio channel, Onuci FM. In
connection with the 2010/2011 conflict, RFI and Onuci
were prohibited from broadcasting in Ivory Coast.
The Internet is well developed in regional
comparison. In 2014, just over 15 percent of residents
had access to the Internet, but the proportion increased
as more and more people can connect to the Internet via
their mobile phones.
FACTS - MASS MEDIA
Percentage of the population using the
47 percent (2018)
Number of mobile subscriptions per 100
The election is postponed again
The presidential election does not go as planned, since voter registration is
Few weapons are handed in
According to a report by the UN Secretary-General on October 1, almost 7,600
former rebels have been demobilized, despite the fact that the rebels themselves
speak of over 34,000, but only a few weapons have been submitted. The new
defense units agreed in the peace agreement have not been formed.
Worried in the north
Violent crows erupt in the north. Behind the turmoil are former rebels, who
claim that they did not receive the money they promised in connection with the
disarmament and integration program.
Disarmament of rebels begins
The rebels begin to disarm. Those who submit weapons receive the equivalent
of $ 200 and are offered a program for re-adaptation to civilian life.
The presidential election is postponed
The presidential election is postponed from June to November. The authorities
are reported to be far behind in the preparations for the elections.
High food prices are provoking protests
Unrest breaks out in the cities of Duékoué and Guiglo in the west. In
Abidjan, protests are being held against substantial food price increases. One
person is killed and dozens injured when security forces intervene against the
protesters. The government later promises to temporarily remove taxes on basic
commodities such as rice, milk, flour, sugar and fish.